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A Stage

An early stage in the polymerization reaction of certain thermosetting resins (especially phenolic) in which the material, after application to the reinforcement, is still soluble in certain liquids and is fusible; sometimes referred to as resole. ( See also B stage, C stage.)

مرحلهA : رزين در اين مرحله، گرمانرم است و در حلالهاي غير آلي (معدني) حل ميشود.)فنوليك)
Ablative Describes a material that absorbs heat through a decomposition process called pyrolysis at or near the exposed surface. A material which absorbs heat (while part of it is being consumed by heat) through a decomposition process (pyrolysis) taking place near the surface exposed to the heat.


An additive to polyester resin that reacts with catalyst to speed up polymerization. This additive is required in room temperature cured resins. See PROMOTER A material mixed with a catalyzed resin to speed up the chemical reaction between the catalyst and resin; used in polymerizing resins…for polyester resin The accelerator is typically N, N-Dimethylaniline (DMA), an amine used toaccelerate MEKP, BPO, and CHP cures. With MEKP as the catalyst, DMA is normally only required in cool climates. At temperatures of 70F or higher, DMA is rarely needed with an MEKP catalyst. شتاب‌ دهنده‌،تسریع کننده،نوعی افزودنی به رزین که سرعت پلیمریزاسیون را در افزایش میدهد(اغلب در دمای اطاق)
Acetone A ketone group solvent that is used to dissolve polyester resins. Used to a large extent for clean up of tools in fiberglass operations. A Flammable Liquid. Acetone replacement solvents, such as Diacetone Alcohol (DAA), can be used as substitutes. استون-یک حلال از گروه کتونها که استقاده فراوانی برای تمیز کردن ابزار فایبرگلاس دارد.CH3COCH3
Addition Reaction A polymerisation re -action in which no by-products are formed. واکنش افزايشى
Additive Any number of materials used to modify the properties of polymer resins. Categories of additives include reagents, fillers, viscosity modifiers pigments and others such as plasticizers, initiators, light stabilizers ultraviolet inhibitors, fire retardant and air inhibitors. usually to improve properties. هرنوع ماده افزودنی برای تغییر خواص رزین مانند بهبود دهنده ها،فیلرها،اصلاح کننده های ویسکوزیته، رنگدانه ها.
Adherend A body held to another body by an   adhesive
Adhesion, mechanical Adhesion between surfaces in which the adhesive holds the parts together by interlocking action. چسبندگى
Adhesive Substance applied to mating surfaces to bond them together by surface attachment چسبناک،چسب
Adhesive Failure A rupture of adhesive bond that appears to be a separation at the adhesive/adherend interface. گسیختگی سطوح چسبیده شده.
Adhesive Film A polymer resin adhesive,usually thermosetting, in the form of a thin dry film of resin, used under heat and pressure as an interleaf in the production of laminated materials or for bonding to core materials. A thin plastic film onto which premixed adhesives are cast.
Ageing The process or the effect on materials of exposure to an environment for an interval of time. the process of exposing materials to an environment for an interval of time. زنگ زدگى ،کهنگى ،پيرى،تاثیر پذیری از شرایط محیطی در فاصله زمانی معین.
Air bubble void Non-interconnected air entrapmentwithin and between the plies of reinforcement.  spherical in shape
Air Dry cure at room temperature without the application of heat or pressure خشک شده در دمای اتاق.هواخشک،رنگ یا رزینی که بطریقه از دست دادن حلال خشک میشود.
Air Inhibited Resin a resin whose surface will remain tacky to the touch after hardening because the oxygen in the air prevents completion of the reaction رزینی که سطح ان در اثر مجاورت با هوا کیور نشده و چسبناک است.
Air Locks Surface depressions on a moulded part, caused by trapped air between the mould surface and the plastic.
Aliphatic Designates a large class of organic compounds having open-chain structures, (e.g., isopropyl alcohol). الیفاتیک ،
Alkyd Plastics Plastics based on resins composed principally of polymeric esters, in which the recurring ester groups are an integral part of the main polymer chain, and in which ester groups occur in most cross links that may be present between chains.
Alligatoring A visible cosmetic defect in the exposed gel coat which looks like wrinkled or alligator skin. یکی از عیوب ژل کت ،شبیه به چین و چروک پوست تمساح
Ambient The surrounding environmental conditions, e.g., pressure or temperature. شرايط محيطى
Amorphous Describes polymers that have no order to their molecules, thus no crystalline component بيشکل ،غير بلورى
Angle ply laminate Any balanced laminate consisting of plies at angles of plus and minus theta, where theta is an acute angle with the principal laminate axis.
Anisotropic Not isotropic. Exhibiting different properties when tested along axes in different directions within the material. ناهمسانگرد ،ناهمسان
Anisotropy OF Laminates The difference of the properties along the directions parallel to the length or width into the lamination planes; or parallel to the thickness into the planes perpendicular to the lamination. ناهمسانگردی لایه ها در چند لائی .
Anti static Agents Agents which, when added to the molding material or applied on the surface of the molded object, make it less conducting (thus hindering the fixation of dust).
Antimony Trioxide Fire retardant additive for use with resins تری اکسید انتیموان-بعنوان تاخیر اندازشعله در ترکیب برخی رزینها وجود دارد.
Aramid Aromatic polyamide fibres characterisedby excellent high temperature, flameresistance,and electrical properties. Aramidfibres are used to achieve high strength, highmodulus reinforcement in plastic composites.More usually found as polyaramid – a syntheticfibre .(Often referred to as Kevlar, DuPont’s trademark.) الیاف پلی امیدی اروماتیک که با نام تجاری کولار شناخته میشوند.
Arcing  حرکت کمانی ،کورس حرکت پیستوله با زاویه
Areal weight a measurement unit consisting of the weight at a specified width times length, of the product. Woven fabrics are designated by weight per square yard. Mat by weight per square foot
Ash Content The solid residue remaining after a reinforcing substance has been incinerated or strongly heated.
Aspect ratio Ratio of the length to the diameter of a fiber. نسبت طول به قطر برای الیاف.
Autoclave A closed pressure vessel usedfor curing laminates under pressure and heat. A closed vessel that permits application of pressure and heat. (see consolidation).
Autoclave molding Molding technique in which an entire assembly (layup and tooling) is placed into an autoclave and subjected to heat and elevated pressure for consolidation and/or curing while removing entrapped air and volatiles. نوعی فرایند قالب گیری که در ان قطعه با کیسه خلا پوشیده شده و در محفظه تحت فشار و حرارت قرار میگیرد.قالبگیری در اتوکلاو.
Automated tape laying Fabrication process in which a structure is formed by laying prepreg material, typically unidirectional tape, across the surface of a mold in multiple layers and directions by using an automated tape-application machine
Axial Winding In filament-wound reinforcedplastics, a winding with the filaments parallelto the axis. wherein the filaments are parallel to or at a small angle to the axis of rotation (x-axis). پیچاندن محوری.یک نوع رشته پیچی
B Stage An intermediate stage in the reactionof certain thermosetting resins. The resinin an uncured prepreg or premix is usually inthis stage. ( See also A stage, C stage.)
Back Pressure Resistance of a material, becauseof its viscosity, to continued flow whena mould is closing. فشار مخالف جريان اصلى در سيستمهاى بسته سيالات،فشار متقابل
Bag molding Molding technique in which the composite structure is placed in a rigid mold and covered with a flexible impermeable layer of film whose edges are sealed, followed by consolidation and/or curing with pressure applied by vacuum, autoclave, press or inflation of the bag. A technique for forming plastic laminates or composites by means of air pressure, vacuum and/or heat in a flexible or semi-flexible bag or autoclave,usually in connection with a rigid die or mold. قالبگیری درون کیسه،
Balanced design In filament winding, a winding pattern designed so that the stresses in all filaments are equal.
Balanced Laminate All laminate plies, exceptthose at 0°/90°, are placed in plus/minuspairs (not necessarily adjacent) symmetricallyabout the lay-up centreline. This minimisesdistortion on demoulding. Any laminate that contains one ply of minus theta orientation, with respect to the principal axis of the laminate, for every identical ply with a plus theta orientation (e.g., a laminate with a principle axis of 0° combined with an equal number of plies having -45° and +45° orientations.
Balanced Twist An arrangement of twist ina plied yarn or cord which will not cause twistingon itself when the yarn of cord is held inthe form of an open loop.
Bandwidth The bandwidth refers to the width of material being laid onto the mandrel at any given time. This is made up of one or many rovings being pulled, the total amount of material being laid flat on the mandrel.
Barcol hardness A surface hardness value obtained by measuring the penetration resistance of a given material to a sharp steel point under a spring load. The Barcol Impressor is an instrument that measures hardness on a 0-100 scale. The hardness value is often used as a measure of the degree of cure of a plastic. ASTM D-2583 معیار سنجش سختی در مبنای بارکول،روشی برای اندازه گیری سختی سطح،مقدار سختی میتواند نشاندهنده میزان عمل اوری لایه ها باشد.
Bare Glass Glass (yarns, roving or fabrics)from which the sizing or finish has been removedor before it has been applied.
Barrier Cream A cream used to protect the skin from contact with resins کرم محافظ
Base The reinforcing material (glass fibre,paper, cotton, asbestos, etc.) which is impregnatedwith resin in the forming of laminates.
Basket weave Woven reinforcement wherein two or more warp threads go over and under two or more filling threads in a repeating pattern; less stable than plain weave but produces a flatter, stronger, more pliable fabric (see plain weave). بافت پاناما، طرح شطرنجى .
Batch Material made by the same process at the same time having identical characteristics throughout (same as lot). دسته ،گروه ،موادی که دریک زمان و با فرایند مشابه تولید میشوندوخواص یکسان دارند.
Bearing Stress The applied load divided bythe bearing area. (Maximum bearing stress isthe maximum load sustained by the specimenduring the test divided by the original bearingarea.) تنش بردگاهى،تنش تکيه گاهى.
Benzoyl Peroxide (BPO) One of two generally used initiators for curing polyester resin. BPO is used with aniline accelerators or where heat is used to cure the resin. See MEKP. The catalyst used in conjunction with aniline accelerators or where heat is used as an accelerator بنزویل پروکسید،شروع کننده ای برای عمل اوری برخی رزینها که اغلب با شتابدهنده های انیلین یا زمانی که حرارت برای عمل اوری بکار برده شود استفاده میشود.
Bias Fabric A fabric in which warp and weftfibre are at an angle (usually ±45°) to thelength
Biaxial fabric Fabric with two non-interwoven layers – a unidirectional warp (0°) layer and a unidirectional weft (90°) layer – which are bonded together, usually by through-the-thickness stitching, to form a single sheet of fabric. (See also triaxial fabric, quadraxial fabric.)
Biaxial Load A loading condition in which alaminate is stressed in at least two differentdirections in the plan of the laminate.
Biaxial Winding In filament winding, a typeof winding in which the helical band is laid insequence, side by side, with no crossover offibres. نوعی رشته پیچی .
Bidirectional Laminate A reinforced plasticlaminate with the fibres oriented in two directions(usually, but not necessarily, 0/90°) in theplane of the laminate. (See also Unidirectionallaminate. چند لائی های دو جهته،معمولا لایه های تقویت کننده در دوجهت عمود برهم مرتب شده اند.
Binder A resin soluble adhesive that secures the random fibers in chopped strand mat or continuous strand roving. The agent applied to glass mat orpreforms to bond the fibres before laminatingor moulding نگهدارنده،چسبی که الیاف پراکنده را در پارچه های سوزنی یا پیوسته در کنار هم نگه میدارد.
Bismaleimide (BMI) Type of thermoset polyimide that cures by an additional reaction, thus avoiding formation of volatiles. Exhibits temperature capabilities between those of epoxy and polyimide.
Bisphenol A A condensation product formed by reaction of two (bis) molecules of phenol with acetone (A). This polyhydric phenol is a standard resin intermediate along with epichlorohydrin in the production of epoxy resins.
Bleeder Cloth A layer of woven or non-woven material, not a part of thecomposite, that allows excess air and resin to escape during vacuum or pressurebagging لایه ای از مواد که بر روی لایه گذاری قرار داده میشود ولی جزئی ازکامپوزیت نیست و سبب جذب رزین اضافی و یاخروج هوا و گاز میشود.هواگیر.
Bleedout Excess liquid resin appearing at the surface of the composite structure, particularly during filament winding. The excess liquid resin that migratesto the surface of a laminate in any pressuremoulding process. جاری و ظاهر شدن رزین اضافی برروی سطح قطعه کامپوزیت بخصوص در فرایند رشته پیچی.
Blister Undesirable rounded elevation of thesurface of a plastic with boundaries that aremore or less sharply defined, resembling inshape a blister on the human skin. The blister may burst and become flattened. A flaw either between layers of laminate or between the gel coat film and laminate. تاول ،ترک بین لایه ها
Block Copolymer An essentially linear copolymerin which there are repeated sequencesof polymer segments of differentchemical structure some of which may be crystallinein nature, others of which may be amorphous. همبسپار دسته اى
Blow An extruded parison tube of heated thermoplastic is positioned between two halves of an open split mold and expanded against the sides of the closed mold via air pressure. The mold is opened and the part ejected. Low tool and die costs, rapid production rates, and ability to mold fairly complex hollow shapes in one piece.
BMC See bulk molding compound. قالب گیری توده ای.
BMI See bismaleimide
Bond ply Ply or fabric patch that comes in contact with the honeycomb core during repair.
Bond Strength As measured by load/bond area, the stress required to separatea layer of material from that to which it is bonded. The amount of adhesionbetween bonded surfaces. ( See alsoPeel strength.) قدرت پيوند،استحکام اتصال ،نیروی مورد نیاز برای جدا کردن مواد بهم چسبیده .
bonding اتصال
Boron fiber Fiber produced by chemical vapor deposition of boron onto a core material, usually a tungsten-filament. Because of the deposition process, a boron fiber is of a fairly large diameter, typically about 0.4 mils, and is thus often referred to as a wire. A fibre usually of a tungstenfilamentcore with elemental boron vapor deposited on it to impart strength and stiffness. الیاف بور
Bottle Winds These combine a helical wind section with a geodesic, or near geodesic wind pattern to generate a stable fiber path over the end domes of the part. These are typically used for pressure vessels.
Braiding Textile process that intertwines into a pattern three or more strands, yarns or tapes, typically into a tubular shape. A process for assembling fibres intoa tubular shape. گیس باف.فرایند بافت الیاف به شکل لوله ای.
Breakout Separation or breakage of fibers when the edges of a composite part are drilled or cut. شکست یا جداشدن الیاف در محل لبه ها هنگام برشکاری یا سوراخکاری.
Breather A loosely woven material that does not come in contact with the resinbut serves as a continuous path for release of entrapped air and resin duringvacuum or pressure molding هواکش.
Bridging Fabric plies over a curved edge that do not come in full contact with the core material. Also, excess resin that has formed on edges during cure. A region of a contoured part whichhas cured without being properly compacted against the mould. پل زدن ،تقویت کننده کشیده شده بر روی یک لبه منحنی که در تماس با بقیه مواد قرار ندارد.
Broadgoods General term for fibers woven into fabrics that may or may not be impregnated with resin; usually furnished in rolls.
Bromine A fire retardant (halogen) used to reduce or eliminate a resin’s tendency to burn.
B-stage Intermediate stage in the polymerization reaction of some thermosets in which the material softens with heat and is plastic and fusible but does not entirely dissolve or fuse. The resin of an uncured prepreg or premix is usually in this state. (See also A-stage, C-stage.) مرحلهB :پيشرفت بيشتر واكنش تراكمي و شبكه اي شدن جزئي به همراه افزايش جرم مولكولي و ويسكوزيته و كاهش انحلال. در اين حالت رزين پخت كامل نشده و گرمانرم و ذوب ميشود ولي به هنگام سرد شدن، سخت و شكننده ميشود.(فنوليك)
Bubble A spherical internal void; globule ofair or other gas trapped in a plastic.
Buckling (composite) A failure mode usually characterized by fiber deflectionrather than breaking because of compressive action. Crimping of fibres in a compositematerial, often occurring in glass-reinforcedthermoset due to resin shrinkage during cure. پیچش یا کمانش،طی کیورینگ که معمولابدلیل خیز الیاف  و زودتر از شکست الیاف رخ میدهد.
Bulk Density The density of a moulding materialin loose form (granular, nodular. etc.),expressed as a ratio of weight to volume. چگالى توده اى ،نسبت وزن به حجم
Bulk molding compound (BMC) A premixed blend of thermosetting resin, reinforcements, catalysts and fillers for use in compression-, transfer- or injection-molding processes. قالبگیری حجمی ترکیبی،
Bundle General term for a collection of essentially parallel filaments.
Burst Strength Hydraulic pressure requiredto burst a vessel of given thickness; commonlyused in testing filament-wound composite structures. فشارترکیدگی .مقاومت یک قطعه کامپوزیت در مقابل هیدروتست.
Butt Joint A joint in which parts are joined with no overlap
C Stage The final stage in the reaction ofcertain thermosetting resins in which the materialis relatively insoluble and infusible. Theresin in a fully cured thermoset moulding is inthis stage. ( See also A stage, B stage.) مرحله C: ميزان پليمريزاسيون و شبكهاي شدن بسيار زياد است. رزين غير قابل ذوب و انحلال ميباشد.
CAD/CAM Computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing. طراحی و ساخت به کمک کامپیوتر.
Calendering Dough-consistent thermoplastic mass is formed into a sheet of uniform thickness by passing it through and over a series of heated or cooled rolls. Calenders are also utilized to apply plastic covering to the backs of other materials. Low cost, and sheet materials are virtually free of molded-in stresses.
Carbon fiber Reinforcing fiber produced by the pyrolysis of an organic precursor fiber, such as PAN (polyacrylonitrile), rayon or pitch, in an inert atmosphere at temperatures above 982°C/1800°F. The term carbon is often used interchangeably with the term graphite, but the fibers differ. Carbon fibers are typically carbonized at about 1315°C/2400°F and contain 93 percent to 95 percent carbon. Carbon fibers can be converted to graphite fibers by graphitization at 1900°C to 2480°C (3450°F to 4500°F), after which they contain more than 99 percent elemental carbon. Carbon fibers are known for their light weight, high strength and high stiffness. الیاف کربن ،تقویت کننده ای با استحکام بالا
Carbon/carbon Composite of carbon fiber in a carbon matrix.
Cast polymer A nonreinforced composite (resin used without reinforcing fibers) that combines polymers, fillers and additives as composites to meet specific application requirements. پلیمر ریختگی،رزین بدون تقویت کننده،ترکیب اجزاء کامپوزیت منهای جزء الیافی یا تقویت کننده.
Casting (termoset) The process of pouring a mixture of resin, fillers and/or fibers into a mold as opposed to building up layers through lamination. This technique produces different physical properties from laminating ریخته گری،نوعی فرایند تولید که در ان رزین،فیلر،الیاف و پیگمنت ابتدا مخلوط و سپس به داخل قالب ریخته میشود.
Casting(termoplastic) Liquid plastic, which is generally thermoset except for acrylics, is poured into a mold without pressure, cured, and taken from the mold. Cast thermoplastic films are produced via building up the material (either in solution or hot-melt form) against a highly polished supporting surface. Low mold cost, capability to form large parts with thick cross sections, good surface finish, and convenient for low-volume production.
Catalyst Technically considered an initiator, catalyst is the colloquial name given to the substance added to the resin or gel coat in controlled quantities to initiate the cure, acatalyst is actually the initiator that causes the chemical reaction that turns aliquid polyester resin into a solid. The type of initiator employed depends upon thetemperature at which the reaction will take place. a substance which markedly speeds up thecure of a compound when added in smallquantity compared with the amounts of primary reactants. (See also hardener.) کاتالیست،متداولترین کاتالیستها در صنایع کامپوزیت متیل اتیل کتون پراکسید و بنزویل پروکسید هستند.
Catalyst Bottle  A squeeze measure beaker used to accuratelymeasure the proper amount of catalyst for putty and resinmixtures. Typically a 16oz bottle is used for resin and a 1oz bottleis used for putty.
Catalyst injection تزریق کاتالیست،تجهیزات پاشش رزین و کاتالیست بصورت مخلوط.
Catalyzed resin A resin mixture possibly still in the workable state, after it has been mixed with catalyst or hardener. رزین مخلوط شده با کاتالیست (تازمانی که هنوزقابل کارکردن باشد.)
Catenary A measure of the difference inlength of the strands in a specified length ofroving as a result of unequal tension; the tendencyof some strands in a taut horizontal rovingto sag lower than the others.
Caul plate Plate or sheet the same size and shape as the composite layup with which it will be used. The caul plate is placed in immediate contact with the layup during curing to transmit normal pressure and provide a smooth surface on the finished part. A sheet the size of the platensused in hot pressing, or other pressure moulding processes.
Caulk An elastic material used to protect joints or connections from external elements, particularly moisture. درز گرفتن‌، اب‌ بندي‌ كردن.ماده ای الاستیک که برای محافظت از اتصالات در مقابل عوامل خارجی بخصوص رطوبت استفاده میشود.‌
Cavity Depression in mold; the space inside a mold wherein a resin is poured; the molded article; which forms the outer surface of the molded article (often referred to as the die); also, the space between matched molds. (Depending on number of such depressions, molds are designated as Single-Cavity or Multiple-Cavity). The space between a male and female mold set in which the part is formed. Sometimes used to refer to a female mold حفره،فضای بین مجموعه قالبها،قالب مادگی
Centipoise (cps) A unit of measure used to designate a fluid’s viscosity (at 21°C/70°F, water is 1 cps; peanut butter is 250,000 cps). Viscometer for most polyester resin applications, Measurement of viscosity as compared to water (1 centipoise). سانتی پواز،واحد اندازه گیری برای بیان ویسکوزیته مایع،ویسکوزیته رزین توسط ویسکومتر اندازه گیری میشود.
Centrifugal Casting A high production techniquefor cylindrical composites, such as pipe,in which chopped fibre and resin is positionedinside a hollow mandrel designed to be heatedand rotated as resin is added and cured. particularly pipe
Ceramic-matrix composites (CMC) Materials consisting of a ceramic or carbon fiber surrounded by a ceramic matrix, primarily silicon carbide.
Chain/transition winds The user can combine various individual winds described above to form multiple layers of a complex wind. The software will also attempt to generate stable transitions from one layer to the next.
Chalking A surface phenomenon indicating degradation of a cosmetic surface. Chalking is a powdery film which appears lighter than the original color سفیدک ،پدیده ای سطحی که یک عیب تزیینی است.
Charge The measurement or weight of material(liquid, preformed, or powder) used toload a mould at one time or during one cycle.
Charge pattern The ply schedule used in parts made from sheet molding compound (SMC); a pre-weighed number of SMC plies cut from an SMC sheet and oriented in such a way that the material will fill the mold cavity when placed in the mold and compressed.
Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) Process in which the reinforcement material is deposited from the vapor phase onto a continuous core such as boron or tungsten. boron on tungsten, for example.
Chill (1) To cool a mould by circulating waterthrough it. (2) To cool a moulding with an airblast or by immersing it in water.
Chopped Strand mat A fiberglass reinforcement consisting short strands of fiber arranged in a random pattern and held together with a binder. Mat is generally used in rolls consisting of 3/4 oz/ft2 material to 2 oz/ft2 material. پارچه های سوزنی ،تقویت کننده فایبرگلاس با رشته ها کوتاهی از الیاف که به شکل اتفاقی و شبیه به نمد در کنار هم قرارگرفته اند.
Chopper Gun A special spray gun used for spray-up laminating which chopspredetermined lengths of fiberglass roving or strands, and deposits them togetherwith catalyzed resin at the same time onto the mold surface
Circuit In filament winding (1) one completetraverse of the fibre-feed mechanism of awinding machine; (2) one complete traverseof a winding band from one arbitrary pointalong the winding path to another point on aplane through the starting point and perpendicularto the axis. this refers to one pass down and back on a mandrel.
Circumferential (“circ”) Winding In filament-wound reinforced plastics a winding withthe filaments essentially perpendicular to theaxis. A form of filament winding, the angle is approximately 90 degrees also called a hoop wind.
Clamping Pressure  In injection mouldingand transfer moulding the pressure appliedto the mould to keep it closed, in opposition tothe fluid pressure of the compressed mouldingmaterial.
Cleaning Solvents  Acetone is typically used to wash brushes, rollers, and other equipment that has become coated with resin or semi-gelled resin.
Cloth A fiberglass reinforcement made by weaving strands of glass fiber yarns. Cloth is available in various weights measured in ounces per square yard or Kg/m2 توعی تقویت کننده به شکل پارچه بافته شده از جنس تارهای فایبرگلاس.
CMC See ceramic-matrix composite.
Coating Process methods vary. Both thermoplastics and thermosets widely used in coating of numerous materials. Roller coating similar to calendering process. Spread coating employs blade in front of roller to position resin on material. Coatings also applied via brushing, spraying, and dipping.
Cobalt Used as the accelerator for Methyl Ethyl Ketone Peroxide catalyzedpolyesters.
Co-curing Simultaneous bonding and curingof components, or dissimilar materials. Cured and simultaneously bonded to another prepared surface.
Coefficient of Elasticity The reciprocal ofYoung’s modulus in a tension test.
Coefficient of expansion (COE) A measure of the change in length or volume of an object. The fractionalchange in dimension of a material for a unitchange in temperature. Also called coefficientof thermal expansion.
Coefficient of Friction A measure of the resistanceto sliding of one surface in contactwith another surface.
Coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) A material’s fractional change in length for a given unit change of temperature. change in length per unit length produced bya unit rise in temperature.
Cohesion (1) The propensity of a single substanceto adhere to itself. (2) The internal attractionof molecular particles toward eachother. (3) The force holding a single substancetogether
Cohesive Failure Failure of a bonded jointwithin the adhesive itself.
Coin tap Tapping a laminate with a coin in different spots to detect a change in sound, indicating the presence of a defect that may require repair.
Cold-setting Adhesive A synthetic resin adhesivecapable of hardening at normal roomtemperature in the presence of a hardener.
Color Pigment Dispersions ground coloring materials in a thick liquid, which arecompatible with the resin system in which it will be used. When added to theresin, the pigment dispersions give it color
Color stability پایداری رنگ ،توانائی رنگدانه برای مقاومت در برابر شرایط محیطی.
Co-mingled Yarn A hybrid yarn made withtwo types of materials intermingled in a singleyarn, for example, thermoplastic filaments intermingledwith carbon filaments to form a singleyarn.
Composite A homogeneous material createdby synthetic assembly of two or more materials(a selected filler or reinforcing elements andcompatible matrix binder) to obtain specificcharacteristics and properties. Compositesare subdivided into the following classes onthe basis of the form of the structural constituents fibrous: the dispersed phase consists offibres; flake: the dispersed phase consists offlat flakes, laminar: composed of layer of laminateconstituents; particulate: dispersedphase consists of small particles, skeletal:composed of a continuous skeletal matrix filledby a second material. Three-dimensional combination of at least two materials differing in form or composition, with a distinct interface separating the components. Composite materials are usually manmade and created to obtain properties that cannot be achieved by any of the components acting alone. Dissimilar materials laminated together to form a single structure, for

example, resin, gel coat, glass. A material created from a fiber (or resinreinforcement)

and an appropriate matrix material in order to maximize specific

performance properties. The constituents do not dissolve or merge completely but retain their identities as they act in concert.



کامپوزیت،چندسازه،سازه های مرکب،
Compression molding Technique for molding thermoset composites in which the part is shaped and cured in the same step. Layered reinforcing fibers and resin paste (typically precombined in a leather-like, preimpregnated sheet) are placed into an open two-part mold cavity. The mold is closed and, with the application of both heat and pressure, the resin viscosity drops, the material is forcibly distributed throughout the mold cavity to take its final shape and the part is allowed to cure. The process is sometimes used for thermoplastics قالب فشاری ،تکنیک قالب گیری تحت فشار و حرارت.
Compressive Modulus Ec Ratio ofcompressive stress to compressive strain belowthe proportional limit. Theoretically equalto Young’s modulus determined from tensileexperiments. A mechanical property description which measures the compression of a sample at a specified load. Described in ASTM D-695. مدول فشاری ،مقدار فشردگی یک نمونه در قبال بار مشخص.
Compressive Strength (1) The ability of amaterial to resist a force that tends to crush.(2) The crushing load at the failure of a specimendivided by the original sectional area ofthe specimen. A material’s ability to resist a force that tends to crushor buckle; maximum compressive load a specimen sustains divided by thespecimen’s original cross-sectional area. The stress a given material can withstand when compressed. استحکام فشاری.قابليت يک جسم براى مقاومت در برابر نيروى فشارى يا نيرويى که گرايش به فشردن و متراکم کردن ان دارد. تنش قابل تحمل توسط یک ماده وقتی که تحت فشار قرار میگیرد.
Compressive Stress The compressive loadper unit area of original cross section carriedby the specimen during the compression test. تنش فشارى
Condensation Reaction A polymerisation reactionin which simple by-products (for example,water) are formed. واکنش تراکمى
Connection Where two panels are attached to each other or a panel is attached to the building جائی که یک پنل به یک سازه یا به یک پنل دیگر متصل میشود.
Consolidation A processing step in which a fiber and matrix are compressed to reduce voids and achieve a particular density. يکپارچگى ،استحکام،انسجام
Contact Moulding A process for mouldingreinforced plastics in which reinforcement andresin are placed on an open mould, cure is atroom temperature using a catalyst-promotorsystem or by heat in an oven, and no additionalpressure is used. قالبگیری تماسی،فرایندی که در ان رزین و تقویت کننده در داخل یک قالب باز قرار داده میشودوکیورینگ معمولادر دمای اتاق صورت میگیرد.
Container Any bag, barrel, bottle, box, can cylinder, drum, reaction vessel,storage tank or the like that contains a hazardous chemical اصطلاح عمومی برای محفظه نگهداری یا عبور هرگونه ماده شیمیائی.ظرف نگهداری مواد شیمیائی.
Contaminant An impurity or foreign substance that affects one or more properties of composite materials, particularly adhesion ناخالصى- ماده خارجى
Contingency Plan A document setting out an organized, planned and coordinatedcourse of action to be followed in case of a fire, explosion or release of hazardouswaste that could threaten human health or the environment
Continuous Filament An individual, small-diameter reinforcement that is flexibleand indefinite in length.Continuous-Filament Yarn, Is formed by twisting two or more continuousfilaments into a single continuous strand. when referring to gun roving, is a collection of string like glass fiber or yarn, which is fed through a chopper gun in the spray up process. تعدادی رشته گلاس که بصورت یک دسته درامده اند.رشته هائی از الیاف که به پیستوله پاشش رزین تغذیه میشود.
Continuous Laminating A process for forming panels and sheeting in which fabric or mat is passed through a resin bath, brought together between covering sheets, and passed through a heating zone for cure. Squeeze rolls control thickness and resin content as the various plies are brought together لایه گذاری پیوسته،فرایند ساخت پنلها بصورتی که ازداخل حمام رزین عبور کرده و بین دو صفحه پوششی بیرون اورده میشوند.غلطکها درصد رزین و ضخامت صفحات را تنظیم میکنند.
Continuous Roving Parallel filament coated with sizing, gathered together intosingle or multiple strands, and wound into a cylindrical package. It may be used toprovide continuous reinforcement in woven roving, filament winding, pultrusion,prepregs, or high-strength molding compounds, or it may be used chopped.
Continuous-filament Yarn Yarn formed bytwisting two or more continuous filaments intoa single continuous strand.
Cooling Fixture A fixture used to maintainthe shape or dimensional accuracy of a mouldingafter it is removed from the mould and untilthe material is cool enough to hold its shape.
Coordinate axes See laminate coordinate axes.
Core (1) The central member of a sandwichconstruction to which the faces of the sandwichare attached. (2) A channel in a mouldfor circulation of heat-transfer media.A low density material used between two FRP skins. Examples of core materials are end-grain balsa wood, urethane foam, PVC foam and various honeycomb materials. also refers to a section of a complex mold that forms undercut parts (also see honeycomb). ماهیچه،قسمت مرکزی یک ساندویچ پنل که دانسیته کمی داردو بین لایه های کامپوزیتی بکار برده میشود مثل چوب بالسا،فوم پی وی سی ،هانیکومها(لانه زنبوری ها)
Core crush Compression damage of the core
Core depression A gouge or indentation in the core material.
Core orientation Used on a honeycomb core to line up the ribbon direction, thickness of the cell depth, cell size and transverse direction.
Core separation A breaking of honeycomb core cells.
Core splicing Joining of two core segments by bonding them together.
Corrosive A substance, either liquid or solid, that can cause visible destructionor irreversible alterations in human skin at the site of contact. Or, RCRA defines”corrosive” as any chemical with a pH less than 2 or more than 12
Count (1) For fabric the number of warp andweft yarns per cm in woven cloth. (2) For yarnthe size based on relation of length and weight.Basic unit is a tex which is the weight ingrammes of 1000 linear metres of the fibre.
Coupling Agent Any chemical substancedesigned to react with both the reinforcementand matrix phases of a composite material toform or promote a stronger bond at the interface;a bonding link. جفت کننده ،
Cowoven fabric Reinforcement fabric woven with two different types of fibers in individual yarns (e.g., thermoplastic fibers woven side by side with carbon fibers).
Crazing Fine cracks which may extend in anetwork on or under the surface of a plasticmaterial. Cracking of gel coat or resin due to stress. Cracking of the resin due to internal stains. Hairline cracks either withinor on the surface of fiberglass laminates, caused by stresses generated byexcessive heat during cure, removal from the mold, impact, or flexing. Region of ultrafine cracks that may develop on or under a resin surface. ترک خوردگی،ترکهای شبکه ای موجود در رزین یا ژلکوت که ناشی از تنش هستند.
Creel A device for holding the required number of roving spools or other supply packages of reinforcement in the desired unwinding position.
Creep The change in dimension of a plasticunder load over a period of time not includingthe initial instantaneous elastic deformation;at room temperature it is called cold flow. Time-dependent dimensional change in a material under physical load.
Crimp The waviness of a fibre, particularlyin a woven fabric. Degree of waviness of a fiber, which determines its capacity to cohere.
Critical Length The minimum length of fiber necessary for matrix shear loadingto develop fiber ultimate strength by a matrix
Critical strain The strain at the yield point.
Cross-laminated Laminated with some of the layers oriented at one or more angles to the other layers with respect to the principal laminate axis. (See cross-ply laminate and fiber architecture.)
Crosslinking Polymerization reactions that branch out from the main molecular chain to form a networked pattern of chemical links. The chemical bonding of molecules which in polymers occurs in the curing transition from a liquid to a solid اتصال عرضی ،اتصلات متقاطع یا پیوند شیمیائی مولکولها که در مرحله عمل اوری شکل میگیرند.شبکه سازی ،شبکه ای شدن.
Cross-ply laminate A laminate having plies oriented only at 0° and 90°. May or may not be symmetrical.
Crosswise direction Refers to cutting specimensand to application of load. For rods andtubes, crosswise is the direction perpendicularto the long axis. For other shapes or materialsthat are stronger in one direction thanin another, crosswise is the direction that isweaker. For materials that are equally strong in both direction, crosswise is an arbitrarilydesigned direction at right angles to the length.
Crystalline Having a molecular structure in which the atoms are arranged in an orderly, three-dimensional pattern.
Crystallinity The quality of having a molecularstructure with atoms arranged in an orderly,three-dimensional pattern.
CTE See coefficient of thermal expansion.
Cure The completion of the cross-linking process during which a composite develops its full strength .To change the physical properties of a material irreversibly by chemicalreaction via heat and catalyst, alone or in combination, with or without pressure.. Specifically to convert a low molecular weight polymer or resin to and insoluble, infusible state. see ultraviolet (UV) cure. کیور،عمل اوری رزین،فرایند تکمیل اتصلات عرضی که طی ان ماتریس به حداکثر استحکام نهائی میرسد.
Cure temperature The temperature at which a material attains final cure.
Cure Time Time between introduction of catalyst or initiator to a polymer and final cure. time required for the liquid resin to reach polymerized stateafter the catalyst has been added. (Further cure may take place after removalof the assembly from the conditions ofheat or pressure.) مدت زمان عمل اوری، فاصله زمانی مابین افزودن کاتالیست به رزین تا عمل اوری نهائی.
Curing Agent Hardener, a catalytic or reactiveagent added to a resin to cause polymerisation.Curing agents participate in the polymerisationprocess. They may be latent -curable only at elevated temperatures – or theymay be activated at room temperature (25°C). (also see accelerator, catalyst and hardener). synonymous with hardener. عامل عمل اوری،کاتالیست یا هاردنر که وقتی به رزین افزوده شود پلیمریزاسیون را شروع میکند.
Curing Temperature Temperature at whicha cast, moulded, or extruded product, a resinimpregnated reinforcement, an adhesive, etc.,is subjected to curing.
CVD See chemical vapor deposition.
Cycle The complete, repeating sequence ofoperations in a process or part of a process.In moulding, the cycle time is the elapsed timebetween a certain point in one cycle and thesame point in the next.
D glass A high-boron-content glass madeespecially for laminates requiring preciselycontrolled dielectric constant.
Damage Tolerance A measure of the abilityof structures to retain load carrying capabilityafter exposure to sudden loads (for example,ballistic impact).
Damping  Diminishing the intensity of vibrations. میرائی ،تضعیف.استهلاک
Damping (Mechanical) Mechanical dampinggives the amount of energy dissipated asheat during the deformation of a material. Perfectlyelastic materials have no mechanicaldamping. Damping also diminishes the intensityof vibrations.
Daylight The distance in the open positionbetween the moving and fixed tables (platens)of a hydraulic press. For a multidaylight press,daylight is the distance between adjacent platens.
Debond An unplanned nonadhered or unbonded region in an assembly. Deliberate separation of a bonded joint or interface, usually for repair or rework purposes. (See also disbond.)
Decomposition The breakdown of a chemical
Deep-Draw Mold A mold having a core which is long in relation to the wall thickness.
Deflection Temperature Under Load Thetemperature at which a simple beam has deflecteda given amount under load (formerlycalled heat-distortion temperature).
Deformation Under Load The dimensionalchange of a material under load for a specifictime following the instantaneous elastic deformationcaused by the initial application of theload; also called cold flow or creep.
Delaminate To split a laminated plastic materialalong the plane of its layers. (See alsoLaminate.). The separation of composite layers from each other. Failure of internal bonding between layers of resin andreinforcement. It appears as a separation of the layers. Also includes the separation of layers of fabric from the core structure. یکی ازعیوب قطعات،جدایش لایه ها ،شکست رزین بین لایه ها در لایه گذاری.تورق.
Demold To remove a part from a tool or a tool from an intermediate model. جدا کردن قطعه از قالب یا قالب از مدل.
Denier A numbering system for yarn and filament in which yarn number is equalto weight in grams of 9000 meters of yarn. (used for continuous filaments). The lowerthe denier the finer the yarn.
Density Weight per unit of volume, usually expressed as pounds per cubic foot. A comparison of weight per volume. دانسیته. وزن در واحد حجم معمولا بر حسب کیلوگرم بر متر مکعب.
Design Allowable A limiting value for a materialproperty that can be used to design astructural or mechanical system to a specifiedlevel of success with 95% statistical confidence.B-basis allowable: material propertyexceeds the design allowable 90 times out of100. A-basis allowable: material property exceeds the design allowable 99 times out of100.
Dielectric Electrically nonconductive; the ability of a material to resist the flow of an electric current.
Dielectric Constant (1) The ratio of the capacityof a capacitor having a dielectric materialbetween the plates to that of the samecapacitor when the dielectric is replaced by avacuum. (2) A measure of the electricalcharge stored per unit volume at unit potential.
Dielectric strength The voltage required to penetrate insulating material. Material with high dielectric strength offers excellent electrical insulating properties. The value of a material as an electrical insulator or the resistance to the flow of electric current.
Diethylaniline (DEA) Accelerator used in conjunction with BPO catalyst or as aco-promoter for cobalt/MEKP systems. دی اتیل انیلین،در سیستمهای بر پایه کبالت بعنوان پیش برنده کمکی استفاده میشود.
Diluent Diluting (reducing or thinning) agent رقیق کننده،کاهش دهنده غلظت.
Dimensional Stability Capability of an item to retain constant shape and sizeunder normal changes in atmospheric pressures and temperatures. A description of the change in size of an object during the molding process or in varying temperature conditions or under various loads. Ability of a plastic part to retain the precise shape to which it wasmoulded, cast, or otherwise fabricated. پایداری ابعادی
Dimethyl Aniline (DMA) Accelerator used in conjunction with BPO catalyst or asa co-promotor for cobalt/MEKP systems. More effective than DEA دی متیل انیلین.شتابدهنده ای که همراه شروع کننده BPO  استفاده میشود.
Dimples Small sunken dots in the gel coat or resin surface, generally caused by a foreign particle in the laminate فرورفتگی.یکی از عیوب سطحی قطعه که در اثر محبوس شدن حفره های کوچک در ژل کت یا وجود اجسام خارجی در ان ایجاد میشود.
Disbond Undesirable separation of bonded surfaces at the bond interface, due to adhesive or cohesive failure, occurring at any time during the life of the bonded structure and arising from any of a wide variety of causes. The term is also sometimes used to describe delamination. (Also see debond.)
Dispersion A wavy gel coat image often found in conjunction with print through.
Displacement Angle In filament winding thedistance of advance of the winding ribbon onthe equator after one complete circuit.
Distortion A change in shape form that which is intended. It is symptomatic of laminating difficulties, curing problems, tooling problems or resin shrinkage. تغييرات ناخواسته شکل يک قطعه يا يک سازه،پیچش و تغییر شکل ناشی از مشکلات کیورینگ.
Doctor roll  A device for regulating theamount of liquid material on the rollers of aspreader; also called doctor bar or doctorblade.
Doily In filament winding the planar reinforcementapplied to a local area between windingsto provide extra strength in an area where acutout is to be made, e.g., port openings.
Dome In filament winding the portion of acylindrical container that forms the integralends of the container.
DOT The U.S. Department of Transportation, the federal agency that regulatesthe transportation of chemicals
Doubler An extra layer of reinforcement, applied to increase stiffness or strength in portions of a laminate expected to incur abrupt load transfers. Localised area of extra layers of reinforcement,usually to provide stiffness orstrength for fastening or other abrupt load transfers.
Draft The angle of the vertical components of a mold which allow removal of the part .The degree of taper allowed on the sides of a mold so the part can beremoved. The taper or slope of the vertical surfacesof a mould designed to facilitate removalof moulded parts. زاویه قالب .زاویه اجزاء عمودی قالب که اجازه خروج قطعه از قالب را میدهد.
Draft Angle The angle between the tangentto the surface at that point and the direction ofejection. A mandrel’s taper or angle for ease of part removal.
Drape The ability of preimpregnated broadgoods or dry fabrics to conform to an irregular3-D shape; textile conformity. The ability of a reinforcement to conform to the shape of a contouredsurface خواباندن پارچه به شکل هندسی قالب.مطابقت تقویت کننده با شکل قالب
Dry Lay-up Construction of a laminate bylayering preimpregnated reinforcement in a femaleor male mould, usually followed by bagmoulding or autoclave moulding.
Dry spot Area of incomplete surface film on laminated plastics; in laminated glass, an area over which the interlayer and the glass have not become bonded.
Dry winding In filament-winding, when fiber reinforcement is applied to the mandrel without first being wet out with resin. Filament winding usingpreimpregnated roving, as differentiated fromwet winding. (See also Wet winding.)
DSC Differential scanning calorimeter. Instrumentationfor measuring chemical reactionsby observing exothermic or endothermic(heat output or heat input) reactions of materials- usually over a programmed temperaturecycle.
Dwell (1) A pause in the application of pressureto a mould, made just before the mouldis completely closed, to allow gas to escapefrom the moulding material. (2) In filamentwinding the time the traverse mechanism isstationary while the mandrel continues to rotateto the appropriate point for the traverse to begin a new pass. (3) A pause in the temperaturerise of a cure cycle, where the partbeing cured is held at a constant temperaturefor a period.
E Glass Originally formulated for use in electric circuitry, E-glass is the most common glass formulation used in fiberglass reinforcements .A borosilicate glass; the type mostused for glass fibres for reinforced plastics;suitable for electrical laminates because of itshigh resistivity. (Also called electric glass.). Most often used in conventional polymer matrix composites. نوعی از الیاف شیشه که بیشتر برای کاربردهای الکتریکی طراحی شده است و متداولترین توع تقویت کننده محسوب میشود.
Edgewise Refers to the application of load.The load is applied edgewise when it is appliedto the edge of the original sheet or specimen.
Ejection Removal of a moulding from themould impression by mechanical means, byhand, or by using compressed air.
Elastic Deformation The part of the totalstrain in a stressed body which disappearsupon removal of the stress.
Elastic Limit The greatest stress which a materialis capable of sustaining without permanentstrain remaining upon the complete releaseof the stress. A material is said to havepassed its elastic limit when the load is sufficientto initiate plastic (nonrecoverable) deformation.
Elastic Recovery The fraction of a given deformationthat behaves elastically.Elastic recovery = elastic extensiontotal extension
Elasticity The property of materials to recover immediately their original size and shape when load is removed after deformation.
Elastomer الاستومر.ماده پلیمری که مدول الاستیسیته خیلی بالادارد.
Electroformed Moulds A mould made by electroplating metal on the face of a mould.
Elongation Deformation caused by stretching;the fractional increase in length of a materialstressed in tension. (When expressed as percentage of the original gauge length, it Is called percentage elongation.) Standard measure for the amount a sample can stretch as a percentage of original length before it fails or breaks. The fractional increase in length of a material loaded in tension. When expressed as a percentage of the original length, it is called percent elongation.. ازدیاد طول. میزان افزایش طول یک نمونه تحت بارگذاری کششی قبل از انکه بشکندو معمولا به شکل درصد نشان داده میشود.
Encapsulating Enclosing an article in a closed envelope of plastic by immersion.Milled fibers or short chopped strands are often poured with the catalyzed resinsinto open molds for casting electrical components. Completely surrounding an object with resin or a fiber resin composite محاصره شدن. احاطه شدن یک جسم با رزین.پوشش داده شدن با کامپوزیت.
Encapsulation Mixed compound is poured into open molds to surround and envelope components; cure may be at room temperature with heated postcure. Encapsulation generally includes several processes such as potting, embedding and conformal coating.
End A strand of roving consisting of a givennumber of filaments gathered together (thegroup of filaments is considered an end orstrand before twisting and a yarn after twisthas been applied): an individual warp yarn,thread, fibre, or roving. A general term for a single strand of roving, which is a continuous, ordered assembly of essentially parallel, collimated filaments, with or without twist  تعداد مشخصی رشته یا دسته ای از فیلامنتها قبل از تابیده شدن
End count The exact number of strands contained in a particular roving. تعداد دقیقی از رشته ها
Engineering plastics A general term covering all plastics, with or without fillers or reinforcements, that have mechanical, chemical and thermal properties suited for use as construction materials or in components for machines and chemical processing equipment.
Epoxy A thermosetting polymer containing one or more epoxide or oxirane groups, curable by reaction with amines or alcohols; used as a resin matrix in reinforced plastic products and as the primary component in certain structural adhesives. Cured epoxy resin is highly resistant to chemicals and water and its performance properties are relatively unaffected by extreme temperatures.
Epoxy Resin A polymer resin characterized by epoxide molecule groups. Epoxies generally have higher physical properties than polyester resins. They are also more costly and difficult to process and less able to endure exposure to sunlight. Thermosetting resin usually of a two-part type, that when combined,cure and form into an extremely hard and tough product. They will adhere betterand shrink less than polyester resins, have generally greater strength, although they are more costly
Even Tension The process whereby eachend of roving is kept in the same degree oftension as the other ends.
Exotherm Heat released during a chemical reaction. Uncontrolled exotherm during cure of a composite component can lead to heat build up, which can result in part warpage and/or mold damage and, in extreme cases, could produce an explosion. The liberation or evolution of heatduring curing of a plastic product.
Exothermic Heat Internally developed heat accompanying a chemical reaction, such as might be created when curing a thermosetting resin.The heat given off by the resin developed internally during thecuring process, or “polymerization.” It is caused by the reaction of theaccelerator and the catalyst when mixed in polyester resins, and by the hardenerin epoxy resins دمای اگزوترمیک.حرارتی که در داخل قطعه در حین عمل اوری ایجاد میشود.حرارت ناشی از کیورینگ رزین یا واکنش گرمازا.
Extenders Low cost materials used to dilute or extend high cost resins without much lessening of properties
Extractor A machine used to pull the mandrel through a small hole stripping the part which was wet-wound onto the mandrel off. A method of part removal.
Extrusion molding Widely used for continuous production of film, sheet, tube, and other profiles; also used in conjunction with blow molding. Thermoplastic or thermoset molding compound is fed from a hopper to a screw and barrel where it is heated to plasticity then forwarded, usually via a rotating screw, through a nozzle possessing the desired cross section. Production lines require input and takeoff equipment that can be complex. Low tool cost, numerous complex profile shapes possible, very rapid production rates, can apply coatings or jacketing to core materials (such as wire). روزن رانی ،
Fabric A material constructed of interlacedyarns, fibres, or filaments, usually planar. Planar textile. Also known as cloth.
Fabric, nonwoven Planar textile constructed by bonding or interlocking but not interlacing fibers or yarns by mechanical, chemical, thermal or solvent means. A material formed fromfibres or yarns without interlacing. پارچه نبافته،شامل تعدادی الیاف بافته نشده
Fabric, woven Planar textile constructed by interlacing fibers or yarns, using a weaving process. A material constructed of interlacedyarns, fibres, or filaments. پارچه بافته شده از رشته ها-الیاف- فیلامنتها
Fabricating, fabrication The manufactureof plastic products from moulded parts, rods,tubes, sheeting, extrusions, or other form byappropriate operations such as punching, cutting,drilling, and tapping. Fabrication includesfastening plastic parts together or to otherparts by mechanical devices, adhesives, heatsealing, or other means. Process of making a composite part or tool.
Fabricator Manufacturer of reinforced plastic products سازنده محصولات تقویت شده .
Fading Loss of color in the gel coat یکی از عیوب رنگ. کدر و تار شدن رنگ در پوششها یا ژل کت.
Fatigue The failure or decay of mechanicalproperties after repeated applications ofstress. (Fatigue tests give information on theability of a material to resist the developmentof cracks, which eventually bring about failureas a result of a large number of cycles.). The failure of a material’s mechanical properties as a result of repeatedstress. خستگی ،افت خواص مکانیکی در اثربارگذاریهای متعدد.
Fatigue Life The number of cycles of deformationrequired to bring about failure of thetest specimen under given set of oscillatingconditions (pressure/load).
Fatigue Limit The stress below which a materialcan be stressed cyclically for an infinitenumber of times without failure.
Fatigue Strength : (1) The maximum cyclicstress a material can withstand for a givennumber of cycles before failure occurs. Maximum cyclical stress withstood for a given number of cycles before a material fails. (2)The residual strength after being subjected to fatigue.
FEA See finite-element analysis.
Feather Edge The process of tapering the edge of a resin-saturated fiberglassmaterial to blend with the adjoining surface, as opposed to having an abrupt edge.
Felt A fibrous material made from interlockedfibres by mechanical or chemical action, moisture,or heat; made from asbestos, cotton,glass, etc.
Female Mold A concave mold used to precisely define the convex surface of a molded part. قالب مادگی.قسمت مقعر قالب
Fiber Reinforcement material which is a major component in a composite matrix الیاف. ماده تقویت کننده لیفی در کامپوزیتها
Fiber architecture The design of a fibrous preform or part in which the fibers are arranged in a particular way to achieve a desired result. Mats and braided, stitched and woven fabrics are common forms of fiber architecture.
Fiber bridging Reinforcing fiber material bridging an inside radius of a pultruded product. The condition is caused by shrinkage stresses around such a radius during cure.
Fiber content The amount of fiber present in a composite expressed either as a percent by weight or percent by volume. Also sometimes stated as a fiber volume fraction or expressed in ratio to the matrix content (e.g., a 60:40 fiber-to-resin ratio denotes a composite with 60 percent fiber content and 40 percent resin content). درصد الیاف موجود در ماده کامپوزیت در قیاس با میزان رزین موجود در ان.
Fiber diameter The measurement (expressed in hundred-thousandths) of the diameter of individual filaments.
Fiber glass الیاف شیشه.تشکیل شده از فیلامنتهائی با قطر خیلی کم و در حد میکرون که مشابه با الیاف نساجی بر روی انها کار میشود.انها عمومی ترین نوع تقویت کننده در کامپوزیتها محسوب میشوند.
Fiber orientation Direction of fiber alignment in a nonwoven or mat laminate wherein most of the fibers are placed in the same direction to afford greater strength in that direction. جهت الیاف؛جهت خواباندن الیاف در لایه گذاری .پارچه های بافته شده ودر جهت یا چند جهت ایزوتروپیک دارندکه با درجه نشان داده میشود.
Fiber placement Continuous process for fabricating composite shapes with complex contours and/or cutouts by means of a device that lays preimpregnated fibers (in tow form) onto a nonuniform mandrel or tool. Differs from filament winding in several ways: There is no limit on fiber angles; compaction takes place online via heat, pressure or both; and fibers can be added and dropped as necessary. The process can produce shapes with greater complexity and permits a faster putdown rate than filament winding.
Fiber volume fraction See fiber content.
Fiber wash Dislocation or displacement of reinforcing fibers placed within a mold caused by the force of the resin flow, resulting in unintended fiber distribution within the finished part.
Fiberglass Fibers similar to wool or cotton fibers, but made from glass;sometimes called fibrous glass. Glass fiber forms include cloth, yarn, mat, milledfibers, chopped strands, roving, woven roving and knitted fabrics
Fiber-reinforced plastics (FRP) General term for a polymer-matrix composite that is reinforced with cloth, mat, strands or any other fiber form. However, in practice, the term is most often used in reference to glass fiber-reinforced plastics. اصطلاح عمومی و متداول برای ترموستهای تقویت شده با الیاف مختلف.
Fibre Pattern (1) Visible fibres on the surfaceof laminates or mouldings. (2) The threadsize and weave of fabrics.
Fibre Placement A continuous process forfabricating composite shapes with complexcontours and/or cutouts by means of a devicethat lays preimpregnated fibres (in tow form)onto a non-uniform mandrel or tool. It differsfrom filament winding (below) in several ways:there is no limit on fibre angles; compactiontakes place online via heat, pressure, or both; and fibres can be added and dropped as necessary.The process produces more complexshapes and permits a faster putdown rate thanfilament winding.
Fibre-composite Material A material consistingof two or more discrete physicalphases, in which a fibrous phase is dispersedin a continuous matrix phase. The fibrousphase may be macro-, micro-, or submicroscopic,but must retain its physical identity sothat it can be removed from the matrix intact.
Fibre-matrix Interface The region separatingthe fibre and matrix phases, which differsfrom them chemically, physically, and mechanically.In most composite materials, theinterface has a finite thickness (nanometersto thousands of nanometers) because of diffusionor chemical reactions between the fibreand matrix. Thus, the interface can be more properly described by the terms interphaseor interfacial zone.
Filament A single, hair like fiber characterized by extreme length (usually of glass) which permits its use in yarn with little or no twist and usually without the spinning operation required. Filaments are used in tows, yarns or roving. Fiber characterized by extreme length, many filaments bundled together are called a roving or tow, the number of rovings determine the bandwidth in filament winding. Polycrystalline or amorphous individual fiber unit with a length-to-diameter ratio greater than one. The minimum diameter of a filament is not limited, but the maximum diameter may not exceed 0.010 inches. Filaments greater than about 0.002 inches in diameter are often referred to as wires .یک رشته از الیاف گلاس با قطری در حد میکرون. تک رشته
Filament count Number of filaments in the cross-section of a fiber bundle.
Filament Winding Filament winding is an automated open molding process that uses a rotating mandrel as the mold. The male mold configuration produces a finished inner surface and a laminate surface on the outside diameter of the product. Filament winding results in a high degree of fiber loading, which provides high tensile strengths in the manufacture of hollow, generally cylindrical products such as chemical and fuel storage tanks, pipes, stacks, pressure vessels, and rocket motor cases. A process which involves winding a resin-saturated strand of glass filament around a rotating mandrel. A process for production of high strength, lightweightproducts in which tape, roving or single strands are fed from a creel through abath of resin (or fed dry using pre-impregnated roving) and wound on a suitable designed mandrel. The wound mandrel is cured at room temperature or in an oven. Excellent strength-to-weight. Continuous, reinforced filaments, usually glass, in the form of roving are saturated with resin and machine-wound onto mandrels having shape of desired finished part.
Fill The fiber bundles in a woven fabric that run transverse (at a 90° angle) to the warp yarns; also known as weft or woof. Yarn oriented atright angles to the warp in a woven fabric.
Fill or Sanding Resin A general purpose polyester resin used to fill voids inreinforcing material in the initial lay-up of a surfacing application. It usuallycontains wax
Filler A solid constituent, usually inert, added to a matrix to modify a composite’s properties (e.g., increase viscosity, improve appearance or de-crease density) or to decrease part material cost. A relatively inert material added to aplastic mixture to reduce cost, modify mechanicalproperties, serve as a base for coloureffects, or improve the surface texture. Usually inert organic or inorganic materials which are added to plastics, resins or gel coats to vary the properties, extend volume, or lower the cost of the article being produced. پرکننده ها،موادی که با اهداف گوناگون  به ماتریس افزوده میشوند.گاها برای افزایش حجم،یا پائین اوردن هزینه های تولید.
Fillet A radiused joint of adhesive betweentwo surfaces being bonded.
Filling Yarn The transverse threads or fibresin a woven fabric, i.e., fibres running perpendicularto the warp; also called weft.
Film Adhesive A synthetic resin adhesive inthe form of a thin dry film of resin with or withouta carrier. commonly used for adhesion between laminate layers.
Finish Materials applied to fibers, after sizing is removed, to improve matrix-tofibercoupling. The surface cleaning treatment applied to the glass fibers afterweaving them into cloth in order to allow the resin to flow freely around andadhere to them. The finish determines the quality of the adhesion between the glass and the resin. The common finishes for fiberglass in boat work are chrome(“Volan”) and for surfboards, silane
Finishing Resin A polyester Resin containing wax (surfacing agent) which floatsto the surface to exclude the air from the resin surface, thereby allowing it tocure or “set up.”
Finite element analysis Process of selecting the optimum combination of materials in a composite, based on computer-based computational modeling and analysis.
Fire Point The lowest temperature at which a liquid in an open container will giveoff enough vapors to continue to burn once ignited. Fire point generally is onlyslightly higher than flash point
Fire Retardant Compounds mixed with the resin to reduce flammability تاخیر انداز اتش،ترکیباتی که برای کاهش قابلیت اشتعال پذیری به رزین افزوده میشوند.
Fire Retardant Resin A Resin type which has been formulated with chemicals toreduce or nearly eliminate its tendency to burn when once cured or “polymerized.”It should be noted that fire retardant resins are not “fire proof.” رزین ساخته شده برای کاهش گسترده شدن اتش .رزین فرموله شده با خاصیت اشتعال پذیری پائین.
Fish Eye A circular separation in a gel coat film generally caused bycontamination such as silicone, oil, dust, water. The effect of surface contamination which causes a circular separation of a paint or gel coat.
Flame Resistance Ability of a material to notsupport flame once source of heat is removed.
Flame Retardants Chemicals used to reduceor eliminate the tendency of a resin to burn.
Flame retarded Resin A resin compoundedwith certain chemicals to reduce or eliminateits tendency to burn. A polyester resin which has been specifically formulated to reduce the flame spread and/or smoke generation characteristics
Flammability A measure of the extent towhich a material will support combustion. A measure of how fast a material will burn under controlled conditions. ASTM D-635/UL E-84 tests قابلیت اشتعال.سرعت شعله وری تحت شرایط کنترل شده خاص.
Flammable The susceptibility of materials to burn
Flange An extension around the perimeter of a mold or part for the purpose of demolding, stiffening or connecting two components لبه دور قالب یا قطعه که به منظور جدا کردن قطعه از قالب یا تقویت اتصال دو قطعه یا دوقالب تعبیه میشود.
Flash Point The lowest temperature at which the vapor of a substance catchesfire, even momentarily if an ignition source is applied. Provides an indication of how flammable a substance is. The lowest temperature at which a substance gives off enough vapors to form a flammable or ignitable mixture with air near thesurface of the substance being tested حداقل دما برای اشتعال .نقطه اشتعال
Flatwise Refers to cutting specimens andthe application of load. The load is appliedflatwise when it is applied perpendicular to theflat face of the original sheet or specimen.
Flexural Modulus Measures the resistance of materials to bending loads. It isused to determine how far a material will bend when a given weight is appliedacross a given space. It is measured in millions of pounds per square inch. Highernumbers mean that there is more resistance to deflection. The ratio, within the elasticlimit, of the applied stress on a test specimenin flexure to the corresponding strain inthe outermost fibres of the specimen. مدول خمشی،عددی که نشاندهنده مقاومت یک ماده در برابر خمش است ونشان میدهد ماده وقتی تحت بارگذاری قرار بگیردچه اندازه خم میشود.
Flexural Rigidity (1) For fibres this is a measureof the rigidity of individual strands or fibres;the force couple required to bend aspecimen to unit radius of curvature. (2) Forplates the measure of rigidity is D = El. whereE is the modulus of elasticity and I is the momentof inertia.
Flexural Strength (1) The resistance of amaterial to breakage by bending stresses. (2)The strength of a material in bending expressedas the tensile stress of the outermostfibres of a bent test sample at the instant offailure. For plastics this value is usually higher than the straight tensile strength. (3) The unitresistance to the maximum load before failureby bending. استحکام خمشی، مقاومت خمشى ،
Flow The movement of resin under pressure, allowing it to fill all parts of a mold; flow or creep – the gradual but continuous distortion of a material under continued load, usually at high temperature.
Flow meter An instrument designed to measure the flow of a liquid. Normallyused with catalyst injection equipment
foam A lightweight, cellular plastic material containing gas-filled voids. Typical foams include urethane, PVC and polyester In RP/C context this term usually refers to rigid foam plastics of threetypes: polystyrene (“Styrofoam”), polyurethane (including the pour-in-place type),and polyvinyl chloride (PVC). ماده پلاستیکی که در ان حفره های پر شده از گاز وجود دارد و وزن سبکی دارد.فوم
Foamed Plastics Resins in sponge form;may be flexible or rigid; cells may be closedor interconnected.
Foam-in-Place The process of creating a foam by the combination of two liquid polymers. See IN-SITU ساخت فوم در محل،ساخت فوم از طریق مخلوط کردن دو پلیمرمایع
Fracture A rupture of the surface of a laminate because of external or internalforces, with or without complete separation
Fracture Toughness A measure of the damagetolerance of a material containing initialflaws or cracks.
Fracture toughness A measure of the damage tolerance of a material containing initial flaws or cracks.
Free Radicals Highly reactive molecule fragments capable of initiating chemicalreactions, such as polymerization of polyester resins.FRP, Fiberglass Reinforced Plastics رادیکالهای ازاد،بخشهای مولکولی بسیار فعال که واکنش را اغاز میکنند.
FRP Fiber Reinforced Plastics, also known as GFRP (Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic), GRP (Glass Reinforced Plastic) and RP (Reinforced Plastic). پلاستیکهای تقویت شده با الیاف.
Fumed Silica Aerosil, Cabosil
FVF Fibre Volume Fraction. The ratio of thevolume of fibre in a laminate to the total volumeof fibre and resin.
FWF Fibre Weight Fraction. The ratio of theweight of fibre in a laminate to the total weightof fibre and resin.
Gap In filament winding the space betweensuccessive windings, which are usually intendedto lie next to each other.
Gauge Length Length over which deformationis measured.
Gel A partial cure stage of plastic resins in a viscous, jelly-like state where theliquid material starts to transform into a solid. The irreversible point at which a polymer changes from a liquid to a semi-solid. Sometimes called the “B” stage. A semisolid system consisting of a network of solid aggregates in which liquid is held; the initial jell-like solid phase that develops during the formation of a resin from a liquid.. ژل،تبدیل یک پلیمرمایع به حالت نیمه جامد(قسمتی از یک فرایند بازگشت ناپذیر)،گاهی به ان مرحله Bگفته میشود.
Gel coat A resin applied to the surface of a mold and gelled prior to lay-up. (The gel coat becomes an integral part of the finished laminate, and is usually used to improve surface appearance and protect the laminate from the environment A surface coat of a specialized polyester resin, either colored or clear, providing a cosmetic enhancement and weatherability to a fiberglass laminate. A surface coat layer of either colored or clear, non-reinforced polymerresin.. پوشش سطحی رزین که میتواند حاوی رنگدانه یا بدون رنگدانه باشد.لایه رزینی بدون تقویت کننده که بر روی سطح قالب اعمال میشود تا سطح قطعه را از نظر تزئینی ارتقا دهد و انرا در مقابل شرایط جوی محافظت نماید.ژلکوت ، ژل پوش .
Gel point The stage at which a liquid begins to exhibit pseudoelastic properties. (This stage may be conveniently observed from the inflection point on a viscosity-time plot). Also, ‘gel time.’
Gel Time For thermosetting resins the timebetween introduction of a catalyst or hardenerinto a resin and gel formation. An unreinforced, clear or pigmented coating resin applied to the surface of a mold or part to provide a smooth, more impervious finish on the part exterior. The length of time from catalyzation to gel or “B” stage. The length of time from when catalyst or hardener is added andremains workable until it starts to solidify ژل تایم ،فاصله زمانی افزودن کاتالیست تا ژل شدن رزین.
Gel Time Retardants  In some cases, when the temperature is above 90F, a gel time retardantis necessary. 2,4-Pentanedione (by Union Carbide) is typically used.
Gelation The formation of a gel ژلاسیون ،تشکیل یک ژل
Geodesic The shortest distance between two points on a surface. This is the ideal wind path becuase on a geodesic path there will be no fiber slipping
Geodesic isotensoid Constant-stress level in any given filament at all points on its path
Glass Content/Glass-Resin Ratio The amount of fiberglass reinforcing materialin a laminate compared to the amount of resin. Glass content assumes thatsufficient resin exists to convert the materials into a stiff, structural laminate
Glass Filament A form of glass that has beendrawn to a small diameter and extreme length.Most filaments are less than 0.005 in (130 microns)in diameter.
Glass Finish A material applied to the surfaceof a glass reinforcement to improve itseffect upon the physical properties of the reinforcedplastic.
Glass Flake Thin, irregularly shaped flakesof glass typically made by shattering a continuousthin-walled tube of glass.
Glass Transition The reversible change inan amorphous polymer or in amorphous regionsof a partially crystalline polymer from (orto) a viscous or rubbery condition to (or from)a hard and relatively brittle state. The glasstransition generally occurs over a relativelynarrow temperature region and is similar to the solidification of a liquid to a glassy state; it Isnot a phase transition. The glass transitiontemperature is the approximate midpoint of thetemperature range over which glass transitiontakes place. See extra notes in FormulatedProducts Article.
Glass transition Temperature (Tg) The approximatetemperature at which increasedmolecular mobility results in significantchanges in properties of a cured resin. Themeasured value of Tg can vary, depending onthe test method دمای تبدیل شیشه ،دمای انتقال شیشه ای،
Glassing Applying (laminating) fiberglass cloth with resin to a shaped blank.
Glint A visual defect in a fiber glass reinforced cured organic (usually corrosion resistant resin) panel.
Gloss Resin The specialized resin that is applied to surfboards as a final coat.
Glug A measurement unit used by some experts to determine the amount ofcatalyst to add to polyester surfboard resin to initiate the cure cycle
Good side The side of a molding in contact with a mold surface.
Graphite fibers Carbon fibers that have been graphitized by heating and stretching at temperatures above 1649°C/3000°F. الیاف گرافیت .
Graphitization Process of pyrolysis at very high temperatures (up to 2982°C/5400°F) that converts carbon to its crystalline allotropic form.
Green Resin which has not completely cured and is still rather soft and rubbery.
Greige : Fabric before finishing; yarn or fibrebefore bleaching or dyeing. Also called greygoods, greige goods, greige grey.
GRP Glass reinforced plastics. Generally based on polyester resin. See FIBERGLASS, FRP. پلاستیکهای تقویت شده با الیاف شیشه.
Halogenated resin A resin combined with chlorine or bromine to increase fire retardancy.
Hand The softness of a piece of fabric, asdetermined by the touch (individual judgement).
Hand Lay-up The process of manually building up layers of fiberglass and resin using hand rollers, brushes and spray equipment. A fabrication method in which reinforcement layers, preimpregnatedor coated afterwards, are placed in a mold by hand, then cured to theformed shape. فرایند لایه گذاری دستی –قراردادن رزین و تقویت کننده ها درون قالب با  استفاده از دست ویا تجهیزات پاشش رزین.
HAPs hazardous air pollutants.
Hard tool A tool made of metal or any “hard” material that is generally impervious to process-related damage (e.g., exothermic distortion) during normal molding operations (in contrast to soft tool). See tool.
Hardener A substance that may be added to a resin to promote and/or control the curing process by participating in and being consumed by the cure reaction. (Also see accelerator, curing agent and catalyst.). A substance or mixture added toa plastic composition to promote or control thecuring action by taking part in it.
Hardness The resistance to surface indentation,usually measured by the depth of penetration(or arbitrary units related to depth ofpenetration) of a blunt point under a given loadusing a particular instrument according to aprescribed procedure. (e.g. Barcol hardness,Rockwell hardness number.)
Hazard Classes Hazardous materials classed by group by the DOT. The classesinclude explosives, flammable liquids, flammable solids, oxidizers and organicperoxides, compressed gases, corrosives, poisons and etiologic agents
Hazard Warning Any words, pictures or combination thereof appearing on a labelor another appropriate form of warning that conveys the hazard(s) of thechemical(s) in the container(s).
Hazardous air pollutants (HAPS) Potentially airborne compounds determined to be hazardous to human health by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
Hazardous Chemical Any chemical that is a physical hazard or a health hazard. هر نوع ماده شيميائي كه براي سلامتي انسان مضر باشد.
Health Hazard A chemical for which there is statistically significant evidencebased on at least one study conducted in accordance with established scientificprinciples that acute or chronic health effects may occur in exposed employees.The term includes chemicals that are carcinogens, toxic or highly toxicagents,reproductive toxins, irritants, corrosive, sensitizers, hepatotoxins, nephrotoxins,neurotoxins, agents that act on the body’s blood system, and agents that damagethe lungs, skin, eyes or mucous membranes
Heat The term used colloquially to indicate any temperature above ambient (room) temperature to which a part or material is or will be subjected.
Heat Distortion Point The temperature at which the strength of a material begins to degrade نقطه پیچش حرارتی یا دمائی که در ان استحکام ماده شروع به کاهش میکند.
Heat Resistance The property or ability ofplastics and elastomers to resist the deterioratingeffects of elevated temperatures.
Heat-deflection temperature (HDT) The temperature at which a standard plastic test bar deflects a specified distance under a stated load.
Helical Describes ply laid onto a rotating mandrel at an angle, often at a 45° angle.
Helical winding Winds which occur at a configurable angle along a cylindrical part. Typically used for winding all manner of pipes and shafts.
Helix angle The angle at which continuous filaments are wound in relation to the longitudinal mandrel axis in the filament-winding process.
Het-Acid Resin Polyester resin with exceptional fire qualities رزینی با خواص استثنائی اشتعال

High corrosion resistance

مقاومت خوردگی بالا
High-performance composites Composites offering properties better than conventional structural metals, typically on a strength-to-weight or stiffness-to-weight basis. Such composites use continuous, oriented fibers in polymer, metal or ceramic matrices to achieve their superior properties.
HM High-modulus. Often applied to carbonfibres having a tensile modulus >350 GPa.
Honeycomb Core Strips of paper, plastic, metal, etc., joined together to form a honeycomb pattern. Used as a lightweight core in sandwich moldings. Resin-impregnated material manufactured in usually, hexagonal cellsthat serve as a core material in sandwich constructions. Honeycomb may also bemetallic or polymer materials in a rigid, open cell structure A lightweight cellular structure (typically hexagonal nested cells) used as core in composite sandwich structures. May be made from either metallic (e.g., aluminum) or nonmetallic (e.g., resin-impregnated paper or woven fabric) sheet materials. Rectangular sheets are adhesively bonded together in stacks, by means of parallel stripes of adhesive placed at regular intervals along one axis. Stacks are sliced across the transverse axis, and each sliced stack is expanded to form a honeycomb grid.. نوارهائی از جنس مواد مختلف که شکل ظاهری شبیه به لانه زنبور داردو به عنوان ماهیچه هائی سبک وزن در ساختارهای ساندویچی بکار میرود.لانه زنبوری ،
Hoop Describes ply layed onto a rotating mandrel at a 90° angle to the long axis of the mandrel. محیطی .رشته پیچی محیطی ،
Hoop Stress The circumferential stress in amaterial of cylindrical form subjected to internalor external pressure.
Hot Coat A resin layer applied to fill the weave of the cloth in the laminationprocess
Hot Pot Catalyst is mixed with the gel coat or resin in a pressure pot prior tospraying, as opposed to internal or external gun mixing
Hot-bond repair Repair made on a hot-patch bonding machine to cure and monitor curing. Typically includes heat and vacuum source
Hybrid composite Composite containing at least two distinct types of matrix or reinforcement. The matrix or reinforcement types can be distinguished by their physical properties, mechanical properties, material form and/or chemical composition.
Hybrid Fabric Two or more reinforcing fibresin a fabric, such as aramid and glass, orcarbon and aramid.
Hydraulic Press A press in which the mouldingforce is created by the pressure exertedon a fluid.
Hydrophilic Capable of absorbing water.
Hydrophobic, Moisture resistant capability, moisture repelling
Hygroscopic Capable of absorbing and retainingatmospheric moisture. Moisture absorbing capability
Hygroscopy A material’s readiness to absorb or retain moisture.
IM  lntermediate-modulus often applied tocarbon fibres having a tensile modulus of approximately300 GPa.
Impact Strength The ability of a material towithstand shock loading; the work done in fracturinga test specimen in a specified mannerunder shock loading.
Impegnate To saturate with resin. The most common application is saturating fiberglass with a catalyzed resin.
Impregnate To saturate the voids and interstices of a reinforcement with resin. In reinforced plastics, to saturatethe reinforcement with a resin. اغشته سازی،اشباع سازی الیاف با رزین(معمولا رزین کاتالیزه شده)
Impregnated Fabric A fabric impregnatedwith a synthetic resin. ( See also Prepreg.)
In situ In the original position; in filament winding, designates a mandrel that remains in place after winding, as opposed to a mandrel that is removed after winding. In pipe repair, a type of repair that does not require pipe excavation; rather a composite sleeve is inserted into the existing pipe through a manhole. In the position which it will finally occupy, e.g. molding or forming foam. در محل .
Inclusion Physical and mechanical discontinuity occurring within a material or part.
Inert filler A material added to a plastic toalter its properties through physical rather thanchemical means.
Inhibitor A chemical which retards polymerization, thus extending shelf life,Inhibitors are used to influence gel time and exothermic heat A substance which retards a chemicalreaction; used in certain types ofmonomers and resins to prolong storage life. جلوگیری کننده،مواد شیمیائی که به رزین افزوده میشود تا از واکنش شیمیائی منجر به کیورینگ رزین ممانعت کند.به منظور افزودن به عمر نگهداری رزین.
Insert A piece of material put into a laminate during or before molding to serve a definite purpose. قطعه جای گذاری شده در حین یا قبل ازقالبگیری که هدف خاصی را براورده کند.
Instron A make of mechanical testing instrumentused to determine the tensile andcompressive properties of materials.
Insulating Resistance The electric resistancebetween two conductors or systems ofconductors separated only by insulating material.
Integral heating System in which heating elements are built into a tool, forming part of the tool and usually eliminating the need for an oven or autoclave as a heat source.
Interface The junction point or surface betweentwo different media; on fibres, the contactarea between the fibre and sizing or finish;in a laminate, the contact area betweenthe reinforcement and the laminating resin. The surface between two different materials; in fibers, the area atwhich the glass and sizing meet; in a laminate, the area at which the reinforcementand the laminating resin meets
Interlaminar Shear Strength(ILSS) The maximum shear stress existing between layers of a laminatedmaterial. The shearing force tendingto produce displacement between twolaminae along the plane of their interface; usuallythe weakest element of a composite. استحکام برشی بین لایه ای.
Internal Stress Stress created within a laminatedue to different rates of contraction or expansionof the fibres and resin system.
Intumescent Capable of swelling or enlarging. In reference to fire-retardants, describes a layer or coating of material designed to swells or thicken in order to form a more effective barrier to heat and/or flame when exposed to either. A fire-retardant technology which causes an otherwise flammable material to foam, forming an insulating barrier when exposed to heat قابلیت تاخیر انداز گسترش اتش.یک تکنولژی تاخیر انداز اتش به این شکل که وقتی ماده در برابر اتش و شعله قرارگیرد به شکل فوم درامده و این فوم بصورت یک عایق عمل میکند.باد کردن ،متورم شدن.
Irritant A chemical that is not corrosive and that causes a reversibleinflammatory effect on living tissue by chemical action at the site of contact.
Isophthalic Resin (“ISO”), Isophthalic acid based polyester resin which hassomewhat higher physical properties than orthophthalic resins
Isotropic Having uniform properties in all directions independent of the directionof load application. The description of equal strength properties in all orientation. Isoptropic composites are usually achieved by random fiber orientation ایزوتروپیک ،یکسان بودن خواص در تمامی جهات.همسانی.
Isotropic laminate A laminate in which the strength properties are equal in all directions, such as contact-molded laminates or metals.
Izod Impact Test A destructive test designedto determine the resistance of a plastic to theimpact of a suddenly applied force.
Jackstrawing A visual effect of glass fiber turning white in a cured laminate. This may not effect the strength of a laminate, but could be an indication of air entrapment or water contamination. رنگ پریدگی،دیده شدن الیاف در یک لایه گذاری عمل اوری شده ،این عمل ممکن است در استحکام لایه گذاری تاثیر نداشته باشد.ولی میتواند نشانه وجود مواد ناخالص یا هوا یا وجود رطوبت در الیاف باشد.
JIG Any fixture for holding parts in position, while joining them together or to maintain their shape جیگ، فیکسچر برای ثابت کردن قطعات در یک موقعیت،یا برای اتصال به قطعات دیگر.
Joint The location at which two adherendsare held together with a layer of adhesive. Buttjoint: the edge faces of the two adherendsare at right angles to the other faces of theadherents. Scarf joint: a joint made by cuttingaway similar angular segments of two adherends and bonding them with the cut areasfitted together. Lap joint: a joint made byplacing one adherend partly over another andbonding together the overlapped portions. A line or distinction formed when two panels are connected. Also referred to as a seam. اتصال،نقطه اتصال دو پنل ،درز
Kevlar Trademark of DuPont for high-performance para-aramid fibers used as reinforcements (see aramid). A proprietary aramid fiber made by Du Pont Chemical for making reinforcing materials
Knit Textile process that interlocks, in a specific pattern, loops of yarn by means of stitching process, using needles or wires.
Lamina Subunit of a laminate consisting of one or more adjacent plies of the same material with identical orientation. (Plural: laminae.)
Lamina orientation See ply orientation
Laminate A material composed of successive layers of composite materials (resinand reinforcements) bonded together. The product. To place into a mold a series of layers of polymer and reinforcement. The act of applying FRP materials to a mold. To lay up. To unite or bond two or more layers or laminae (often with the aid of pressure and/or heat). Any fiber- or fabric-reinforced composite consisting of laminae with one or more orientations with respect to some reference direction. لایه گذاری،لایه های یک کامپوزیت که بهمدیگر چسبانده شده اند.فرایند تولید لایه ها با استفاده از رزین و تقویت کننده . چندلائی ،
Laminate coordinate axes Set of coordinate axes, usually right-handed Cartesian, used as a reference in describing the directional properties and geometrical structure of the laminate. Usually the x-axis and the y-axis lie in the plane of the laminate and the x-axis is the reference axis from which ply angle is measured. The x-axis is often in the principal load direction of the laminate and/or in the direction of the laminate principal axis. (See principal axis, off-axis laminate and x-axis.)
Laminate Ply One layer of a product whichis itself produced from by two or more layersof materials.
Laminating Material, usually in form of reinforcing cloth, paper, foil, metal, wood, glass fiber, plastic, etc., preimpregnated or coated with thermoset resin (sometimes a thermoplastic) is molded under pressure greater than 1000psi (7Mpa) into sheet, rod, tube or other simple shapes. Excellent dimensional stability of finished product; very economical in large production of parts.
Laminating Resin A resin formulated to bond successive layers ofreinforcements. A polyester resin that will not completely cure tack-free in the presence of air.
Lamination Applying layers of glass and resin to a mold. Also used to describe a single ply of laminate
Land The portion of a mold which provides the separation or cutoff of the flash from the molded article; in the screw of an extruder, the bearing surface along the top of the flights; in an extrusion die, the surface parallel to the flow of material; in a semi-positive or flash mold, the horizontal bearing surface; in a two-piece mold, a platform build up to the split line.
Lap In filament winding the amount of overlaybetween successive windings, usually intendedto minimise gapping.
Lap Joint A joint made by positioning one material over another end-to-end orside-by-side (as opposed to a butt joint). The joint consists of more than one layerof material. A joint made by overlapping two parts and bonding them together.
Lay (1) In glass fibre the spacing of the rovingbands on the roving package expressedin the number of bands per inch. (2) In filamentwinding the orientation of the ribbon withsome reference, usually the axis of rotation.
Layer A single ply of lay up or laminate. یک لایه
Layup To place or the process of placing layers of reinforcing material into position in or on a mold; also used to refer to the reinforcing materials as placed in the mold (“the layup”). The act of building up successive layers of polymer and reinforcement. Layers of catalyzed resin and fiberglass or other reinforcements are applied to a mold in order to make a part. Thecomponent materials, geometry, etc., of a laminate. لایه گذاری
Layup code Designation system for abbreviating the stacking sequence of laminated composites.
Lengthwise Direction Refers to cuttingspecimens and the application of loads. Forrods and tubes, lengthwise is the direction ofthe long axis. For other shapes of materialsthat are stronger in one direction than in theother lengthwise is the direction that isstronger. For materials that are equally strongin both directions lengthwise is an arbitrarily designated direction that may be with thegrain, direction of flow in manufacture, longerdirection, etc. ( See also Crosswise direction.)
Liner : In a filament-wound pressure vesselthe continuous, usually flexible, coating on theinside surface of the vessel used to protectthe laminate from chemical attack or to preventleakage under stress.
Liquid-crystal polymers (LCP) High-performance melt-processible thermoplastics that develop high orientation in the melt and after molding, resulting in very high tensile strength and high-temperature capability.
lnjection Moulding A technique developedfor processing thermoplastics which areheated and forced under pressure into closedmoulds and cooled.
lnterlaminar Existing or occurring betweentwo or more adjacent laminae.
Load-deflection Curve A curve in which increasingloads are plotted on the y-axis andthe deflections caused by those loads are plottedon the x-axis.
Loss on Ignition Weight loss, usually expressedas percent total, after burning off anorganic sizing from glass fibres or an organicresin from a glass-fibre laminate.
Low profile Describes resin compounds formulated for low-to-zero shrinkage during molding. رزین با پروفیل کم،رزین با انقباض کم که پیچش سطحی در حین قالبگیری را کاهش میدهد.
Low-Pressure Laminates Laminated molded and cured using pressures from 400 psi down to and including the pressure obtained by mere contact of the plies لایه گذاری در فشار پائین،انجام مراحل تولید قطعه بدون اعمال فشار خارجی.
Mact Maximum Achievable Control Technology. A technology-based air pollution control standard developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) aimed at reducing emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from U.S. manufacturing operations.
Male Mold The type of mold where a part is made up over the mold instead ofinside the mold, with the outside surface of the mold creating being inner surfaceof the molded part. A swimming pool is an example قالب نر،قالب محدب که با ان قطعه مقعر تولید میشود.
Mandrel An internal mould for hollow components.In filament winding, the corearound which resin-impregnated fibre iswound to form pipes, tubes, or vessels. The core around which paper-, fabric-, or resin-impregnated glass is wound to form pipes, tubes, or vessels; in extrusion, the central finger of a pipe or tubing die.
Master (Plug) The tool used to build molds for the manufacture of fiberglassparts مدل،نمونه کاملی از قطعه که بعنوان مرجع نگهداری میشود و سایر قطعات تولیدی با ان مقایسه میشوند.
Mat A fibrous reinforcing material composed of chopped filaments (for choppedstrandmat) or swirled filaments(for continuous-strand mat) with a binder tomaintain form; available in blankets of various widths, weights and lengths See CHOPPED STRAND MAT. پارچه حصیری.نمد
Matched Die Molding Technique for producing long runs of identical parts with two finished sides. A variation of the conventional compression molding this process employs two metal molds possessing a close-fitting, telescoping area to seal in the plastic compound being molded and to allow trim of the reinforcement. The mat or preform reinforcement is positioned in the mold and the molds is closed and heated under pressures of 150-400 psi (1-3 Mpa). The mold is then opened and the part is removed. قالبگیری با قالبهای جفت شده،
Matched Metal Moulding A reinforced-plasticmanufacturing process in which matchingmale and female metal moulds are used (similarto compression moulding) to form the part. See compression molding. قالبگیری با قالبهای جفت شده.
Matched Molds Two or more tools arranged in a set as a male and female mold. Normally used in a press قالبهای جفت شده .دو یا چند قطعه که در یک مجموعه قالب نر و ماده بهم متصل شده و معمولا در پرس استفاده میشوند.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) Written or printed materials concerning ahazardous chemical that includes information on the chemical’s identity; physicaland chemical characteristics; health hazards; primary routes of entry; exposure limits; whether the chemical is a carcinogen; precautions for safe handling and use;control measures; emergency and first aid procedures; and the name, address andtelephone number of the manufacturer, importer or employer distributing the MSDS
Matrix Material in which reinforcing fiber of a composite is embedded. Matrix materials include thermosetting and thermoplastic polymers, metals and ceramic compounds. The liquid component of a composite or laminate. See Resin بستر .ماتریس.قسمت پلیمری مایع در ساخت کامپوزیتها
Matrix content Amount of matrix present in a composite expressed either as a percent by weight or percent by volume. For polymer-matrix composites this is the resin content. (Also see fiber content.)
Mechanical Adhesion Adhesion betweensurfaces in which the adhesive holds the partstogether by interlocking action.
Mek Peroxide (MEKP) One of two initiators often referred to as catalyst and used to initiate polymerization of a resin. Methyl Ethyl Ketone Peroxide. (See BENZOYL PEROXIDE). Abbreviation for methyl ethyl ketone peroxide; a strongoxidizing agent (free radical source) commonly used as catalyst for polyester resins
MEK Solvent Abbreviation for methyl ethyl ketone; a colorless, flammable liquidcommonly used in clean-up procedures.. حلال متیل اتیل کتون،که برای تمیز کنندگی استفاده میشودو بعنوان شروع کننده استفاده ندارد.
MEKP Abbreviation for methyl ethyl ketone peroxide متیل اتیل کتن پراکسید،شروع کننده پراکسیدی ،کاتالیست برای شروع کردن پلیمریزاسیون رزین.
Metallic Fibre Manufactured fibre composedof metal, plastic-coated metal, metal-coatedplastic, or a core completely covered by metal.
Metal-matrix composite (MMC) Continuous carbon, silicon carbide, or ceramic fibers embedded in a metallic matrix material. کامپوزیتهای زمینه فلزی،
Micro cracking Microscopic cracks formed in composites when thermal stresses locally exceed the strength of the matrix. ایجاد ترکهای بسیار ریزدر ساختارکامپوزیتها وقتی که تنش حرارتی قطعه از استحکام زمینه(ماتریس) تجاوز میکند.
Microballoon – “Microspheres” Any of the several available types ofmicroscopic gas filled balloons or balloon aggregates. They may be composed ofglass, phenolic, Saran@ or various silicates. When added to resins they make light weight patching pastes sometimes referred to as “syntactic foams.” used as a filler or to create syntactic foam or putty mixtures کره های ریز تشکیل شده از شیشه،فنولیک ،یا سرامیک وغیره که معمولا بعنوان فیلر برای ایجاد فوم مصنوعی یا ساخت بتونه مورد استفاده قرار میگیرد.
Micron A unit of length replaced by the micrometer(mm); 1mm = 10-6 m = 10-3 mm =0.00003937 in = 39.4min.
Midplane Plane that is equidistant from both surfaces of the laminate.
Mil 1 mil = 0.001 in.
MIL (Mil Thickness) The unit used in measuring film thickness. One mil equals one thousandth of an inch. (1 mil = .001 “). واحد اندازه گیری ضخامت فیلم.یک هزارم اینچ.
Milled fiber Continuous glass or carbon strands hammer-milled into very short fibers. Glass fiber processed by a hammer mill into lengths of 1/32″ to 1/8″. Commonly used as a reinforcement in polyester putty. Useful as anticrazing reinforcing fillersfor adhesives. الیاف خرد شده،الیاف اسیاب شده،میلد فایبربعنوان افزایش دهنده ظاهری ویسکوزیته رزین یا بعنوان فیلر استفاده میشود.
MMC Metal-matrix composite; material inwhich continuous carbon, silicon carbide, orceramic fibres are embedded in a metallicmatrix چند سازه های زمینه فلزی.کامپوزیت فلز
Modulus A number which expresses a measureof some property of a material, e.g., modulusof elasticity, shear modulus, etc. Using“modulus” alone without modifying terms isconfusing and should be avoided. The physical measure of a material’s stiffness, equal to the ratio of applied load (stress) to the resulting deformation of a material. May be represented by a number or in descriptive terms as low, intermediate, high or ultrahigh. A higher modulus indicates greater stiffness. (See stiffness and Young’s modulus.)
Modulus in Compression See Compressivemodulus.
Modulus in Flexure See Flexural modulus.
Modulus in Shear See Shear modulus
Modulus in Tension See Tensile modulus
Modulus of Elasticity The ratio of unit stress to unit strain within theproportional or elastic range of a material. Also known as “Young’s Modulus.” An engineering term used to describe a material’s ability to bend without losing its ability to return to its original physical properties ضريب کشسانى ،ضريب ارتجاعى.توان ماده برای خم شدن بدون از دست دادن خواص اولیه فیزیکی.ضریب فنری
Modulus of Elasticity in Torsion The ratioof the torsion stress to the strain in the materialover the range for which this value is constant.
Modulus of Rigidity See Flexural rigidity.
Modulus of Rupture See Flexural strength مدول گسيختگى
Modulus, Initial, or Young’s Modulus SeeModulus of elasticity.
Mohs Hardness A measure of the scratchresistance of a material; the higher the numberthe greater the scratch resistance (diamondis 10).
Moisture absorption Pickup of water vapor from the air by a material. Refers to vapor withdrawn from the air only as distinguished from water absorption, which is weight gain due to the absorption of water by immersion.
Mold An enclosed cavity or open form from which a composite component takes its shape, size and exterior surface appearance (also known as a tool). (1) The tool from which a plastics part is made and from which it takes itsform. (2) The process by which a plastic part is made. (3) To shape plastics parts by heat and pressure. (4) The assembly of all components that function collectively in the molding process قالب. ابزاری برای ساخت قطعه به شکل دلخواه،فرایند ساخت قطعه(در قالب)
Mold Release A wax or polymer compound that is applied to the mold surface which acts as a barrier between the mold and the part, thus preventing the part from bonding to the mold .A substance used to coat the mold to prevent sticking of the resinthat will be used to make a part. It facilitates the substance used to coat themold in order to prevent sticking and for ease of part release عامل جداسازی قطعه و قالب از همدیگر،واکس یا جداکننده ای که بر روی سطح قالب اعمال میشودتا از چسبیدن قطعه به ان جلوگیری کند.
Mold Shrinkage The immediate shrinkage which a molded part undergoes when it is removed from a mold and cooled to room temperature; the difference in dimensions, expressed in inches per inch between a molding and the mold cavity in which it was molded (at normal temperature measurement); the incremental difference between the dimensions of the molding and the mold from which it was made, expressed as a percentage of the dimensions of the mold.
Molding The forming of plastic and composite materials by various means, such ascontact, pressure, matched die, and continuous laminating into a given shape of a mold, and holding that shape by the mold until the resin cures or hardens. The process of using a mold to form a part. The process of forming composite materials into a solid mass of prescribed shape and size, using a mold or tool قالبگیری،تولید قطعات پلاستیکی و کامپوزیتی با استفاده از قالب.
Monofilament Single continuous filament strong enough to function as a fiber in textile or other operations. A single filament of indefinite length. Monofilaments are generallyproduced by extrusion
Monomer One of the constituents of polyester resin .A relatively simple compound capable of polymerization with itself orwith a compatible resin while acting as a diluent (1) A simple molecule capable ofreacting with like or unlike molecules to forma polymer. (2) The smallest repeating structureof a polymer, also called a mer. مونومر،عامل پلیمری رزین پلی استر،تکپاره
Motion files This is a term used in Composite Designer and Omniwind. The user can directly edit the motion files for each axis. This is primarily used to perform some post-processing of machine motion(e.g. smoothing out high-acceleration regions of the wind). The motion can also be edited to account for irregular shapes in the mandrel (e.g. a protrusion at a fixed location on the mandrel requiring the motion to be adjusted to avoid striking the part). Actual part generation of any complexity by human calculations is quite difficult and extremely tedious.
Mould The cavity in or on which the mouldingmaterial is placed and from which it takesform.
Moulding The shaping of a moulding materialin or on a mould. Sometimes used to denotethe finished part.
Moulding Cycle The time required for thecomplete sequence of operations on a mouldingto produce one set of mouldings.
Moulding Shrinkage The immediate shrinkagewhich a moulded part undergoes when itis removed from a mould and cooled to roomtemperature.
Mould-release Agent A liquid or powderused to prevent sticking of moulded articlesin the mould. Often a wax or silicon-basedcoating.
Multicircuit Winding In filament winding awinding that requires more than one circuit beforethe band repeats by lying adjacent to thefirst band.
Multifilament Yarn or tow consisting of many continuous filaments (also see yarn and tow).
Multifilament Yarn A multitude of fine,continuous filaments (often 5 to 100), usuallywith some twist in the yarn to facilitate handling.Sizes range from 5 to 10 denier up to afew hundred denier. Individual filaments in amultifilament yarn are usually about 1 to 5 denier.
Naphtha A petroleum distillate commonly used as a solvent for natural resins and rubber.
NDE, NDI, NDT Nondestructive evaluation, nondestructive inspection, nondestructive testing. (See nondestructive inspection.)
NDI  (Non Destructive Inspection) A processor procedure for determining material orpart characteristics without permanently alteringthe test subject. Nondestructive testing(NDT) is broadly considered synonymous withNDI. بازرسی غیر مخرب،تست مواد بدون اثر گذاشتن بر روی ماده.
Near-net shape Describes a manufactured part or reinforcement preform fabricated to final dimensions that require minimal machining, cutting or other finishing.
Nesting In reinforced plastics placing pliesof fabric so that the yarns of one ply lie in thevalleys between the yarns of the adjacent ply(nested cloth).
Net shape Fabricated to final dimensions that do not require machining or cutting. شکل خالص،قطعه نهائی خارج شده از قالب که نیاز به برشکاری یا ماشینکاری نداشته باشد.
Nol Ring A parallel filament wound test specimen used for measuring various mechanical strength properties of the material by testing the entire ring, or segments of it.
Nomex Trademark of DuPont for moderate-performance meta-aramid material that is often used in paper form to make honeycomb core.
Non-Air Inhibited Resin A resin in which the surface cure will not be inhibitedor stopped by the presence of air. A surfacing agent has been added to exclude air from the surface to the resin
Nondestructive inspection (NDI) Determining material or part characteristics without permanently altering the test object. Nondestructive testing (NDT) and nondestructive evaluation (NDE) are broadly considered synonymous with NDI. بازرسی غیر مخرب.
Non-linear winds These are the most complex wind patterns, the user can define an arbitrary mandrel profile and wind angle parameters and composite designer will attempt to generate a fiber path which covers the part and then generate motion to generate the fiber path.
Non-Volatile Material The portion remaining as solid under specific conditionsshort of decomposition
Nonwoven Fabric Fabric produced byloosely bonding together yarns, rovings, etc.
Nonwoven roving A form of fiber reinforcement composed of continuous fiber strands loosely gathered together. A reinforcement composed of continuous rovings loosely gathered together
Notch Sensitivity : Extent to which the sensitivityof a material to fracture is increased bythe presence of a surface inhomogeneity suchas a notch, a sudden change in section, acrack, or a scratch. Low notch sensitivity isusually associated with ductile materials andhigh notch sensitivity with brittle materials.
Novolac A phenolic-aldehyde resin which remainspermanently thermoplastic unless asource of methylene groups is added; a linearthermoplastic B-staged resin.
NPG Gel Coat Neopentyl glycol gel coat has enhanced weatherability compared to non-NPG gel coat ژل کت نیوپنتیل گلایول که مقاومت بالاتری در مقابل شرایط اب و هوائی دارد.
Nylon The generic name, by common usage, for all synthetic polyamides.
Off axis laminate Laminate whose principal axis is oriented at an angle theta other than 0° or 90° with respect to a reference direction, usually related to the principal load or stress direction.
Offset Yield Strength The stress at whichthe strain exceeds by a specific amount (theoffset) an extension of the initial proportionalportion of the stress-strain curve.

One dimensional reinforcment

تقویت کننده تک جهته
One-off نمونه سازی،تولید تنها یک قطعه
Orange peel Backside of the gel coated surface that takes on the rough wavytexture of an orange peel. A gel coated or painted finish which is not smooth and is patterned similar to an orange’s skin. پدیده پوست پرتقالی،ژلکت یا رنگی که یکنواخت نیست و ظاهری شبیه به پوست پرتقال دارد.
Organic Designating or composed of matteroriginating in plant or animal life or composedof chemicals of hydrocarbon origin,natural or synthetic.
Oriented Materials Composites whose constituents are aligned in a particular way
Orthophthalic Resin (“Ortho”) Orthophthalic acid based polyester resin.Considered a “general purpose” resin. A polyester resin based on orthophthalic acid, also known as a general purpose resin (GP). رزین ارتو.رزین ارتوفتالیک،پلی استر ساخته شده برمبنای اسید ارتوفتالیک که کاربردهای عمومی دارد.
Orthotropic Having three mutually perpendicularplanes of elastic symmetry.
Out-life The period of time a prepreg materialremains in a handleable form and withproperties intact outside of the specified storageenvironment; for example, out of thefreezer in the case of thermoset prepregs.
Outo ignition temperature دمای احتراق خود بخودی ،دمائی که در ان ماده بدون جرقه یا شعله اتش میگیرد.
Overlap A simple adhesive joint, in whichthe surface of one adherend extends past theleading edge of another.
Oxidizer In RP/C context a chemical agent that initiates or promotes combustionin other materials, thereby causing fire either of itself or through the release ofoxygen or other gases.
PAN Polyacrylonitrile. The precursor for mostcarbon fibres. See polyacrylonitrile پلى اکريلونيتريل
Parallel-Laminated Laminated so that all layers of material are orientedapproximately parallel with respect to the grain or strongest direction in tension.Also called unidirectional, this pattern allows the highest loading of reinforcement,but gives maximum strength in only one direction
Part consolidation A design-and-fabrication process in which a number of previously discrete parts are combined in a single component to reduce or eliminate assembly operations and associated costs.
Parting Agent Any material used to coat the mold to prevent the molded partfrom sticking to the mold when being removed, or a material used to keep resinfrom sticking to any part of the work. Common release agents are wax, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), cellophane, glass, and “Formica”. Wax and PVA are commonly used infemale mold factory production boat-building. See mold release. عامل جداسازی،جداکننده قطعه و قالب.
Parting film A layer of thin plastic that prevents bagging materials from sticking to a part. It may be perforated to vent excess resin. It is removed after cure.
Parting Line The location on a molded product between different segments of the mold used to produce the product خط جدایش،خط ایجاد شده از دو قطعه قالب که بر روی قطعه ساخته شده دیده میشود.
Pattern The initial model for making fiberglass molds. . See PLUG مدل اولیه برای ساخت قالب.الگوی ساخت قالب.
PBO See poly p-phenylene-2,6-bensobisoxazale.
Peel Ply A layer of material applied to a laminate surface that is removed fromthe cured laminate prior to subsequent bonding operations, Leaves a clean resinrich surface ready for bonding or filling Peel Strength, The strength of an adhesive bond obtained by stress applied “in a peeling mode”. A tightly woven polyester or nylonfabric which is applied to the outside layer ofa laminate. This is removed or sacrificed toachieve improved bonding of additional pliesand leaves a clean, resin-rich surface readyfor bonding. لایه ای از جنس مواد مختلف که روی سطح لایه گذاری شده قرار داده میشود تا سطح غنی از رزین را برداشته و سطح قطعه را برا ی اتصال بعدی اماده نماید.ورق چسبان.
Peel strength Strength of an adhesive bond between sheet materials; determined by applying parting stress at a right angle (perpendicular) to the plane of the adhesive interface. Bond strength, obtained bypeeling apart layers. ( See also Bond strength.) استحکام و اتصال بین لایه های یک لایه گذاری،
Permanent Set The deformation remainingafter a specimen has been stressed in tensiona prescribed amount for a definite periodand released for a definite period.
Peroxides Category of compounds containing unstable O – O Group: Oxygen toOxygen atoms پراکسیدها،افزودنیهائی شامل گروههای اکسیژن که بعنوان شروع کننده بکار برده میشوند.
Phenolic, Phenolic Resin A synthetic resinproduced by the condensation of an aromaticalcohol with an aldehyde, particularly of phenolwith formaldehyde. (See also A stage, Bstage, C stage, Novolac.) Phenolics have particularly good fire-resistance properties. فنولیک،
Physical Hazard A chemical for which there is scientifically valid evidence thatit is a combustible liquid, a compressed gas, explosive, flammable, an organicperoxide, an oxidizer, pyrophoric, unstable (reactive) or water reactive (HC standard definition).
Pick An individual filling yarn, running thewidth of a woven fabric at right angles to thewarp, also called fill, woof, weft.
Pigment A colorant added to gel coat or resin. An opaque ingredient used as a coloring agent for resin and in gel coats to impart color. پیگمنت،رنگدانه،ماده رنگی افزوده شده به ژل کوت یا رزین.
Pigment Separation Occurs when the pigment is not thoroughly mixed into the gel coat during formulation or the gel coat is improperly mixed prior to use. It is characterized by a nonhomogeneous surface color. جدا شدن رنگدانه.مخلوط شدن نامناسب پیگمنت با رزین یا ژلکوت که منجر به ایجاد رنگی غیر یکنواخت میشود،این حالت میتواند در اثر استفاده از رنگدانه نامناسب نیز اتفاق بیفتد.
Pin holes Small voids open to and visible on the surface of a cured composite part. A tiny hole in the surface of, orthrough a coating material. Small holes on the exposed gel coated surface. They are about the diameter of common pins and may be easily counted. Generally larger in size than porosity. سوراخهای ریز بر روی ژل کت یا سطح کامپوزیت.سوراخهای ریز به قطر نوک سنجاق بر روی سطح ژل کت خورده.
Pit Small regular or irregular crater in the surfaceof a moulding, usually with width aboutthe same order of magnitude as the depth.
Pitch Residual petroleum product used as a precursor in the manufacture of certain carbon fibers. قطران
Planar Helix Winding A winding in whichthe filament path on each dome lies on a planewhich intersects the dome while a helical pathover the cylindrical section is connected to thedome paths.
Planar winding Filament winding method in which the filament path lays on a plane that intersects the winding surface.
Plastic A ma terial that contains as an essentialingredient an organic substance of highmolecular weight, is solid in its finished stateand at some stage in its manufacture orprocessing into finished articles can beshaped by flow; made of plastic. A rigid plasticis one with a stiffness or apparent modulus of elasticity greater than 690 MPa at 23°C. Asemirigid plastic has a stiffness or apparentmodulus of elasticity between 69 and 690 MPaat 23°C. Usually synthetic materials chemically created from organic substancesclassified as thermoplastics or thermosets
Plastic Deformation Change in dimensionsof an object under load that is not recoveredwhen the load is removed; opposite of elasticdeformation. See also Elastic recovery.
Platens The mounting plates of a press, towhich the entire mould assembly is bolted.
Plied Yarn A yarn formed by twisting togethertwo or more single yarns in one operation. Two or more yarns collected together, with or without twist.
Plug A composite industry name for a pattern or model مدل،الگو
Ply The number of single yarns twisted together to form a plied yarn; one of thelayers that make up a stack or laminate. A single layer (or lamina) used to fabricate a laminate. Also, the number of single yarns twisted together to form a plied yarn. یک لایه واحد درون لایه گذاری.
Ply orientation Acute angle (theta) – including 90° – between a reference direction and the ply principal axis. the ply orientation is positive if measured counterclockwise from the reference direction and negative if measured clockwise.
Ply schedule A prescribed sequence for laying up individual plies or layers to form a laminate, indicating the arrangement of plies by material type and other characteristics, such as fiber orientation.
PMR-15 A type of Polyimide resin.
Poisson’s ratio When a material is stretched, its cross-sectional area changes as well as its length. Poisson’s ratio is the constant relating these changes in dimensions, and is defined as the ratio of the change in width per unit width to the change in length per unit length. A constant relating tochange in cross-sectional area to change inlength when a material is stretched; n = 1/2for rubbery materials, 1/4 to 1/2 for crystalsand glasses.
Polar Winding A type of filament winding in which the filament path passes tangent to the polar opening at one end of the chamber and tangent to theopposite side of the polar opening at the other end of the chamber. This is very close to a zero degree wind.
Poly p-phenylene-2,6-bensobisoxazale (PBO) A relatively new polymer fiber, with a modulus and tensile strength almost double that of aramid fiber and a decomposition temperature almost 100°C/212°F higher.
Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) Polymer base material that is spun into a fiber form and used as a precursor in the manufacture of certain carbon fibers.
Polyamide A polymer in which the structuralunits are linked by amide or thioamide groupings;many polyamides are fibre-forming.
Polyester Thermosetting resins produced by dissolving unsaturated, generally linear, alkyd resins in a vinyl-type active monomer, such as styrene. The resins are usually furnished in solution form, but powdered solids are also available. A resin formed by the reaction between dibasic acid and a dihydroxy alcohol. Modification with multifunctional acids and/or bases and some unsaturated reactants permit cross-linking to thermosetting resins. Polyesters modified with basic oils are called alkyds. The product of an acid-glycol reaction commonly blended with a monomer to create a polymer resin. In its thermosetting form it is the most common resin used in the FRP industry. پلی استر،متداولترین نوع رزین برای استفاده در کامپوزیتها.
Polyetherimide (PEI) A high-performance thermoplastic resin with repeating aromatic imide and ether molecular units. Characterized by high strength and rigidity over a wide range of temperatures, as well as long-term heat resistance, highly stable dimensional properties and broad chemical resistance.
Polyimide A polymer produced by heatingpolyamic acid; a highly heat-resistant resin [>600°F(> 316°C)] suitable for use as a laminating resin or an adhesive. Highly heat-resistant thermoplastic polymer resin.
Polymer The end product, usually a solid, produced from a single or combinationof monomers. A very large molecule formed by combining a large number ofsmaller molecules, called monomers, in a regular pattern. A chain molecule composed of many identical groups, commonly found in plastics. A high-molecular-weight organiccompound, natural or synthetic, whose structurecan be represented by a repeated smallunit (mer), e.g., polyethylene, rubber, cellulose.Synthetic polymers are formed by addition orcondensation polymerisation of monomers. پلیمر،زنجیره مولکولی موجود در پلاستیکها.
Polymer alloy (or polymer blend) A blend of polymers, copolymers or elastomers.
Polymerisation A chemical reaction in whichthe molecules of a monomer are linked togetherto form large molecules whose molecularweight is a multiple of that of the originalsubstance. When two or more monomers areinvolved, the process is calledcopolymerisation or heteropolymerisation.
Polymerise To unite molecules of the samekind into a compound having the elements inthe same proportion but possessing muchhigher molecular weight and different physicalproperties.
Polymerization The chemical chain composed of many identical groups, such aspolystyrene. The chemical reaction of cross-linking the molecules in the resin.See also Cure. The chemical bonding of polymer molecules during the curing reaction ترکيب و تراکم ذرات ،پوليمريزه شدن ،بسپارش.اتصال زنجیره ای مولکولهای پلیمر در حین واکنش عمل اوری.فرایند شیمیائی ایجاد اتصالات عرضی در مولکولهای رزین.بسپارش .
Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA) A liquid water soluble release agent for polyester. A parting film applied to a mold for part releasing. پلی وینیل الکل،نوعی فیلم جدا کننده قابل حل در اب.
Porosity Small air bubbles in the gel coat film; too numerous to count. Generallysmaller in size than pinholes. The formation of undesirable clusters of air bubblesin the surface or body of a laminate. Entrapped gas bubbles or voids in a gel coat film. The presence of voids open to the surface of a solid material into which air or liquids may pass. تخلخل،یکی از عیوب کامپوزیتها که به شکل حبابهای محبوس شده در فیلم یا ژلکوت دیده میشود.
Positive Mold A mold designed to apply pressure to a piece being molded with no escape of material.
Postcure (Post Cure) Additional elevated-temperaturecure, usually without pressure, to improve finalproperties and/or complete the cure. Completecure and ultimate mechanical propertiesof certain resins are attained only by exposureof the cured resin to temperatures higher thanthose of initial curing. To cure by application of heat after the chemical exothermic reaction has subsided پخت نهائی،پست کیور،عمل اوری نهائی با استفاده از حرارت،پخت تکمیلی،
Pot Life The length of time a quantity of catalysedresin system in a container remains liquidprior to gelation, also called working life. See GEL TIME. The length of time a catalyzed resin system retains viscosity low enough to be used in processing; also called working life عمر نگهداری مواد در ظرف،فاصله زمان بین افزودن کاتالیست به رزین مایع تا زمانی که هنوز رزین قابل استفاده است.مدت زمانی که ویسکوزیته رزین کاتالیزه شده به اندازه ای است که قابل کار کردن باشد.زمان مصرف.
Potting Similar to encapsulating, except that steps are taken to insure completepenetration of all the voids in the object before the resin polymerizes.
Ppm Parts of a substance per million parts of air, soil or water. It is a measureof concentration by volume in air.
PPS  Polyphenylene sulfide.
Precure The full or partial setting of a syntheticresin or adhesive in a joint before theclamping operation is complete or before pressureis applied.
Pre-cure The full or partial setting of a resin or adhesive before the clampingoperation is complete or before pressure is applied.
Precursor Material from which carbon fibers are made by pyrolysis. Common precursors are polyacrylonitrile (PAN), rayon and pitch.
Preform Pre-shaped fibrous reinforcement, supplied without matrix, but often containing a binder to facilitate manufacture and maintain shape. A preform’s fiber components are distributed or arranged, typically on a mandrel or mock-up, to approximate the contours and thickness of the finished part, saving time and labor during the molding process. A preshaped fibrous reinforcementof mat or cloth formed to the desired shapeon a mandrel or mock-up before being placedin a mould press, or RTM tool. شکل دادن اولیه.الیاف تقویت کننده ای که بصورت اولیه به شکل قالب درامده اند.پیش ساخته ،
Preform Binder A resin applied to thechopped strands of a preform, usually duringits formation, and cured so that the preformwill retain its shape and be handleable.
Preheating The heating of a compound prior to molding or casting in order tofacilitate the operation or to reduce the molding cycle.
Preimpregnation The practice of mixingresin and reinforcement and effecting partialcure before use or shipment to the user. ( Seealso Prepreg.)
Premix Reinforcing material mixed with resin, and usually with pigment, filler and catalyst, before placing in the mold مخلوط اولیه،مخلوط ماده تقویت کننده با رزین و سایر افزودنیها قبل از قراردادن در قالب.پیش مخلوط،
Prepreg Abbreviation for pre-impregnated glass fibers. Resin-impregnated cloth,mat, or filaments in flat form that can be stored for later use. The resin is oftenpartially cured to a tack-free state called “B Staging”. Such additives as catalyst, inhibitors, flame retardant and others, may be added to obtain specific end-use properties and improve processing, storage and handling characteristics. Fibrous reinforcement (sheet, tape, tow, fabric or mat) preimpregnated with resin and capable of storage for later use. For thermosetting matrices the resin is usually partially cured or otherwise brought to a controlled viscosity, called B-stage. Additives (e.g., catalysts, inhibitors and flame retardants) are used to obtain specific end-use properties and/or improve processing, storage and handling characteristics پری پرگ،ماده تقویت کننده ای که ازقبل به رزین اغشته شده و توسط حرارت عمل اوری میشود.پیش اغشته ،
Pre-Release Premature release of the gel coat or laminant from the mold. جداشدن زودهنگام ژلکوت یا لایه ها از قالب که میتواند عیوب تزئینی یا ابعادی بوجود اورد.
Pressure  Force measured per unit area.
Pressure-Bag A tailored bag (usually rubber sheeting) which is placed against thelay-up process. Air or steam pressure (up to 50 psi) is applied between the bag anda pressure plate located over the mold. A membrane which conforms to the inside of a laminate laid up on a mold. The membrane or bag is then inflated applying pressure which consolidates and densifies the laminate کیسه فشار،
Pressure-Bag Molding A molding technique in which a flexible bag is placed overthe contact layup in the mold, sealed and clamped in place, and pressure applied by compressed air, which forces the bag against the part while the part cures. A process formoulding reinforced plastics, in which a tailoredflexible bag is placed over the contactlay-up on the mould, sealed, and clamped inplace. Fluid pressure, usually compressed air,is exerted on the bag, and the part is cured.
Primary Laminate Laminate applied after the skin coat has cured. Generallythicker than the skin coat.
Primary structure An aerospace critical load-bearing structure; if damaged the aircraft or space vehicle cannot operate safely. The main structure.
Prime contractors Referred to as “primes”; companies that are awarded government contracts and usually work with subcontractors (or “subs”) who provide individual and specific components or systems relevant to the contract. Primes often team on contracts, sharing portions of the contract funding.
Primer  A coating applied to a surface beforethe application of an adhesive or lacquer,enamel, or the like to improve the performanceof the bond.
Principal axis Laminate coordinate axis that coincides with the direction of maximum inplane Young’s modulus. Within a ply, for a balanced weave fabric either warp or fill direction may be chosen. (See also laminate coordinate axes and x-axis.)
Print Through A distortion in the surface of a part which allows the pattern of the core or fiberglass reinforcement to be visible through the surface. Also known as print out, telegraphing or read through”Telegraphing” of the image of glass strands through the gel coatfilm. The weave or pattern of reinforcing material showing through the exteriorsurface or gel coat of a laminate. پیچش در سطح قطعه که باعث میشود شکل ماهیچه یا تقویت کنندها در داخل قطعه قابل رویت باشد.
Process Description Continuous strand roving is fed through a resin bath and wound onto a rotating mandrel. The roving feed runs on a trolley that traverses the length of the mandrel. The filament is laid down in a predetermined geometric pattern to provide maximum strength in the directions required. When sufficient layers have been applied, the laminate is cured on the mandrel. The molded part is then stripped from the mandrel. Equipment is available for filament winding on a continuous basis and two axis winding for pressure cylinders. Filament winding can be combined with the chopping process and is known as the hoop chop process.
Promoted Resin Polyester resin to which an accelerator has been added. Resinwhich does not have accelerator is said to be “unpromoted “. Resin which has thepromoter added before the user adds the catalyst is said to be “prepromoted”.
Promoter See accelerator. A reagent which speeds resin cure. A chemical which hastens the reaction between a catalyst and a resin (also known as an accelerator). . NOTE: Many resins are pre-promoted and do not requireadditional promotion. The container of resin shall denote whether or not the resin is pre-promoted عامل پیش برنده یک واکنش شیمیائی.عاملی که به فرایند عمل اوری رزین سرعت می بخشد.
Proportional Limit The greatest stress whicha material is capable of sustaining without deviationfrom proportionality of stress and strain(Hooke’s Law); it is expressed in force per unitarea.
Prototype A test part not intended for commercial release, which establishes design, material and fabrication parameters for a new product. Also, to fabricate such a test part (a process that can entail multiple iterations to arrive at final/commercial part design). نمونه اولیه از محصول.یک نمونه ازمایشی که برای بهبود مشخصه های محصول  ویا فرایندهای تولید محصول،تهیه میشود.
Puckers Local areas on prepreg where material has blistered and pulled away from the separator film or release paper
Pultrusion A continuous process for manufacturing composites in rods, tubes, andstructural shapes having a constant cross section. After the reinforcement ispassed through the resin-impregnation bath, it is drawn through a shaping die to form the desired cross section; curing takes place before the laminate can depart from that cross section. This process is similar to profile extrusion, but it does not provide flexibility and uniformity of product control, and automation. Used for continuous production of simple shapes (rods, tubes, and angles) principally incorporating fiberglass or other reinforcement. High output possible. پالتروژن،فرایند تولید پیوسته برای اشکالی که مقطع ثابت دارند نظیر:لوله ،میلگرد،پروفیل.کشش رانی.
Puncture A break in the composite skin of a sandwich structure that may or may not go through to the core material or completely through the part thickness.
Putty A thickened mixture of resin made by adding fillers, thixotrophs and reinforcing fibers بتونه.رزین غلیظ شده با استفاده از فیلرها و تقویت کننده ها و تیکسوتروفها.
PVA See POLYVINYL ALCOHOL پلی وینیل الکل.نوعی فیلم جدا کننده
Pyrolysis The decomposition or other transformation of a compound caused by exposure to heat. تغيير شيميايى در اثر حرارت ،تجزيه در اثر حرارت ،اتشکافت،تفکافت
Quadraxial fabric Fabric with four non-interwoven layers +45°, -45°, 0° and 90° – which are bonded together, usually by through-the-thickness stitching, to form a single sheet of fabric. (See also biaxial fabric, triaxial fabric.)
Quasi-isotropic Approximates isotropy by orientation of plies in multiple directions.
Ramping A gradual, programmed increase/decrease in temperature or pressure, duringthe cure cycle of composite parts.
Rate tools Tools designed to be used repeatedly in a production setting to fabricate many parts rather than a single prototype or small number of demonstration parts.
Reaction injection molding (RIM) A process involving high-pressure mixing of two highly reactive resin components to promote fast cure; primarily used in the molding of parts with polyurethane matrices.
Reactive A material that can enter into a chemical reaction with other stable orunstable materials.
Reagent A substance used in a chemical reaction to produce other substances.
Recycling Converting solid waste into new products by using the resourcescontained in discarded materials.
Regrind Scrap composites (thermoset or thermoplastic) collected in-plant or from post-consumer sources and reground into pellets or fine powder for reuse in molding new parts, either as a new base material or in combination with virgin materials.
Reinforced Molding Compound A compound supplied by raw material producer in the form of ready-to-use materials, as distinguished from premix. مخلوطی شامل پلیمرو تقویت کننده و افزودنیها به شکل اماده برای مصرف.
Reinforced Plastic A plastic with strengthproperties greatly superior to those of the baseresin, resulting from the presence of reinforcementsembedded in the composition.
Reinforced reaction injection molding (RRIM) A closed molding process that mixes two highly reactive resin components for cure. Reinforcement, generally flake glass or milled fibers, is added to one of the resin components to add strength and reduce thermal expansion.
Reinforcement A material added to the matrix to provide the requiredproperties; ranges from short fibers through complex textiles forms. A fiber which when encapsulated in a polymer resin matrix forms a composite or fiberglass laminate. Also refers to a structural member designed to stiffen a molded part. A strong inert materialbonded into a plastic to improve its strength,stiffness, and impact resistance. تقویت کننده ها.ماده ای که به رزین افزوده میشود تا ویژگیهای فیزیکی  سازه مرکب را بهبود دهد.عامل تامین کننده مشخصات فیزیکی درچند سازه.
Release Any spilling, leaking, pumping, pouring, emitting, emptying, discharging,injecting, escaping, leaching, dumping or disposing into the environment of achemical, including the abandonment or discarding of barrels, containers and other closed receptacles.
Release Agent A compound used to reduce surface tension or adhesion between a mold and a part .A material which is appliedin a thin film to the surface of a mould to keepthe resin from bonding to it. See also MouldRelease. An specially formulated material placed between the mold and uncured resin/fiber (usually sprayed or painted on the mold surface). An internal lubricant such as zinc stearate is used in hightemperature molding to obtain release where wax would melt or be absorbed. عامل جداسازی،ترکیبی برای کاهش کشش سطحی و چسبندگی بین قطعه و قالب.
Release Film A thin plastic film applied ontop of a laminate stack before it is cured. It isusually perforated, allowing excess resin toflow out and be absorbed by a bleeder cloth A release agent made from an impermeable film that does not form a bond with the composite material during cure.. فیلم جدا کننده.
Reportable Quantity The amount of a substance above which it must beclassified as a hazardous substance when transported. Also, the amount abovewhich transport must be reported to EPA, excluding water and formulatingmaterials
Resilience (1) The ratio of energy returnedon recovery from deformation to the work inputrequired to produce the deformation (usuallyexpressed as a percentage). (2) The abilityto regain an original shape quickly afterbeing strained or distorted.
Resin A solid, semisolid, or pseudo-solidorganic material which has an indefinite (oftenhigh) molecular weight, exhibits a tendencyto flow when subjected to stress, usuallyhas a softening or melting range. Mostresins are polymers. In reinforced plastics thematerial used to bind together the reinforcement material, the matrix. See also Polymer. As composite matrices, resins bind together reinforcement fibers and work with them to produce specified performance properties. رزین.پلیمر مایع
Resin Content The amount of resin in a laminateexpressed as a percentage of totalweight. See matrix content.
Resin Rich Localized area filled with resin but lacking reinforcement fiber. Rich-An area, especially in a laminate, where too much resin has been applied in relation to the fiberglass reinforcing material. The opposite of a Dry Spot or “resin starved” area. Also referred to as a “resin pocket” and “resin streak.”Resin Starved, Localized area lacking sufficient resin for wetout of the fibers. Describes a localized buildup of resin in excess of the expected resin/fiber ratio in a composite. غنی از رزین . وجود رزین اضافی در لایه گذاری.پایین بودن درصد الیاف در لایه ها نسبت به رزین.
Resin Tearing Separation of pigments in a gel coat affecting cosmetic appearance پارگی رزین.گسیختگی رزین.جداشدن رنگدانه ها درژلکوت.
Resin transfer molding (RTM) A closed molding process in which catalyzed resin is transferred into an enclosed mold cavity to impregnate a pre-positioned fibrous reinforcement (see preform). The mold and/or resin may or may not be heated. RTM involves relatively low tooling and equipment costs and enables fabricators to consolidate large parts. قالبگیری با انتقال رزین ،فرایند قالبگیری که در ان تقویت کننده ها قبلا در قالب قرارداده شده و رزین به داخل قالب بسته پمپ میشود.
Resin viscosity Describes a resin system’s solid-to-liquid transition resistance to flow, which can be altered by temperature and pressure to achieve desired flow characteristics. (Also see viscosity.)
Resin-rich Area Space which is filled withresin and lacking reinforcing material.
Resin-starved Describes an area in a composite that lacks sufficient resin to achieve thorough fiber wetout. محتاج به رزین .رزین ناکافی در لایه گذاری.
Resin-starved Area Area of insufficient resin,usually identified by low gloss, dry spots, orfibre show.
Ribbon A fibre having essentially a rectangularcross section, where the width-to-thicknessratio is at least 4:1.
Ribbon direction On a honeycomb core, the length of the core splice; the direction perpendicular to the direction of cell expansion (w-direction). The direction of one continuous ribbon. (See honeycomb.)
RIFT Resin Infusion under Flexible Tooling.
RIM  Reaction-injection moulding.
Rockwell Hardness Number A value derivedfrom the increase in depth of an impressionas the load on an indenter is increasedfrom a fixed minimum value to a higher valueand then returned to the minimum value.
Room Temperature-curing Adhesives Adhesives that set (to handling strength) within an hour at temperatures from 68 to 86 F( at 20 to30°C), and later reach full strength without heating
Rotational molding A predetermined amount of powdered or liquid thermoplastic or thermoset material is poured into mold; mold is closed, heated, and rotated in the axis of two planes until contents have fused to inner walls of mold; mold is then opened and part is removed. Low mold cost, large hollow parts in one piece can be produced, and molded parts are essentially isotropic in nature
Roving A collection of bundles of continuous filaments either as untwisted strands or twisted yarns. Rovings may be lightly twisted, but for filament winding they are generally wound as bands or tapes with as little twist as possible. A loose assembly of continuous filamentsof glass fibre substantially without twist. الیاف دم اسبی .فیلامنتها پیوسته دردسته های پیچانده نشده که در فرایند پاشش استفاده میشود.نیم تاب ،
RRIM  Reinforced reaction-injection moulding.
RTM See:Resin-transfer moulding. A mouldingprocess in which catalysed resin Is transferredinto an enclosed mould into which the fibrereinforcement has been placed; cure normallyis accomplished without external heat, RTMcombines relatively low tooling and equipment costs with the ability to mould large structuralparts.
RTRP reinforced thermosetting resin pipe
S Glass A magnesia-alumina-silicate glass,especially designed to provide filaments withvery high tensile strength. The standard abbreviation for “structural glass,” which is a magnesia/alumina/silicate glass fiber reinforcement designed to provide the very high tensile strength required in high-performance composites. See structural glass. نوعی الیافی شیشه با استحکام فشاری بالا.
S-2 glass S-glass and S-2 glass fibers have the same glass composition but different finishes (coatings). S-glass is made to more demanding specifications, and S-2 glass is considered the commercial grade
Sags/Runs Sag – slumping of the gel coat or resin film. Run – draining of the gelcoat film or laminating resin.
Sand Coat The resin layer which is sanded to blend and refine contours of the board (also referred to as the hot coat).
Sandwich Construction )Sandwich structure( A laminate with two composite skins .A type of fiberglass construction which resembles asandwich consisting of relatively dense but high-strength facings bonded to a lessdense but thicker intermediate material or “core”. Core materials include plastic foams, end grain balsa, honeycomb, lumber and plywood. ساختارهای ساندویچی .نوعی لایه گذاری برای تولید سازه های سبک با استفاده از مواد ماهیچه ای یا فوم.
Sandwich Lay-up A lamination composed of two outside layers of reinforcedmaterial such as glass mat and inside layer or layers of honeycomb, glass cloth, orother lightweight material.
Satin A particular, fairly flat weave pattern infabrics in which each warp fibre flocks over 4or more weft fibres, and vice versa.
Scarf Joint A bonded joint in which similar segments of adherends are cut away,with cut areas overlapped and bonded. See Joint.
Scrim A nonwoven open-weave reinforcingfabric made from continuous-filament yarn inan open-mesh construction. Often used tosupport an adhesive film. Low-cost, woven reinforcing fabric in an open mesh construction
Sealant A paste or liquid that, when applied to a joint, hardens in place to form a seal.
Secondary bonding The joining, by means of adhesive, of two or more already cured composite parts. اتصال ثانویه.اتصال دو قطعه که قبلا عمل اوری شده اند.
Secondary structure Aerospace structure that is not critical to flight safety. (In contrast to primary structure.)
Self extinguishing Ceases to burn when the source of flame is removed خود خاموش شونده.
Self healing خود درمان ،
Self-extinguishing Resin A resin formulationwhich will burn in the presence of a flamebut which will extinguish itself within a specifiedtime after the flame is removed. رزین خود خاموش شونده ،
Selvage The narrow edge of woven fabric that runs parallel to the warp. It ismade with stronger yarns in a tighter construction than the body of the fabric to prevent raveling. The edge of a woven fabric finishedoff so as to prevent the yarns from unravelling.
Sensitizer A chemical that causes a substantial proportion of exposed people oranimals to develop an allergic reaction in normal tissue after repeated exposure tothe chemical
Separator A permeable layer that separates and also acts as a release film (e.g., porous, Teflon-coated fiberglass). Often placed between lay up and bleeder to facilitate bleeder systems’ removal from laminate after cure.
Serrated Rollers  Typically 1/2” x 3” metal serrated aluminumrollers used to rollout the trapped air pockets in the lamina.
Set (1) To convert into a fixed or hardenedstate by chemical or physical action, such ascondensation polymerisation, oxidation, vulcanisation,gelation, hydration, or evaporationof volatiles. (2) The irrecoverable deformationor creep usually measured by a prescribedtest procedure and expressed as a percentage of original dimension
Set Up To harden, as in curing.
Shear An action or stress resulting from appliedforces and tending to cause two contiguousparts of a body to slide relative to eachother in a direction parallel to their plane ofcontact. An action or stress resulting from force applied in a direction parallel to the plane of adhesion between the surfaces of two adjacent components or layers, causing or tending to cause one to slide relative to the other. برش ،تنش حاصل از لغزش دو قطعه مجاور هم که در جهت موازی با صفحه تماسشان در نتیجه اعمال نیروی خارجی ایجاد میشود.
Shear strength The maximum shear stress that a material is capable of sustaining. مقاومت برشی
Sheet Molding Compound (SMC) A ready-to-mold fiber glass reinforcedpolyester material. The compound is thermosetting resin and a chopped orcontinuous strand reinforcement sandwiched between two thin layers ofpolyethylene film. The primary use of SMC is in compression molding.
Shelf Life The allowable storage time before a product must be used. The length of time a material can be stored and continue to meetspecification requirements, remaining suitable for its intended use. عمر نگهداری ،مدت زمان مجاز نگهداری مواد قبل از مصرف.عمرذخیره ،زمان مجاز جهت نگهدارى کالا( در قفسه).
Ship Lap Method of joining two panels together by means of one panel having a recessed shelf to receive the other panel on top of it leaving a flush surface روشی برای اتصال در پنل به یکدیگربصورتی که دارای پله بوده و پس از اتصال همسطح میشوند.
Short-beam Shear Strength Theinterlaminar shear strength of a parallel-fibrereinforcedplastic material as determined bythree-point flexural loading of a short segment.
Shot One complete cycle on an injection-molding machine.
Shot weight The measured amount of compound required to completely fill the mold in injection or transfer molding processes.
Shrinkage The relative change in dimension between the length measured on the mold when it is cold and the length on the molded object 24 hours after it has been taken out of the mold. The tendency of a resin systemto contract in volume when transitioning fromthe liquid to the used state. افت حجمى ،افت ،وابست ،جمع شدگى ،انقباض ،کاهش ،انقباض ،چروک
Silicon carbide fiber Reinforcing fiber with high strength and modulus; density is equal to that of aluminum. May be formed as wires by chemical vapor deposition onto a carbon-filament core, or as filaments. Used in both organic and metal-matrix composites.
Size Any treatment consisting of starch, gelatin,oil, wax, or other suitable ingredient appliedto yarn or fibres at the time of formationto protect the surface and facilitate handlingand fabrication or to control the fibre characteristics.The treatment contains ingredientswhich provide surface lubricity and binding action but, unlike a finish, no coupling agent.Before final fabrication into a composite, thesize is usually removed by heat-cleaning anda finish is applied.
Sizing A chemical solution used to coat fiber filaments, facilitating operations such as weaving or braiding. Sizing protects the filament from water absorption and abrasion (to minimize fiber wear) and also can be used to bind together and stiffen warp yarns during weaving. Sizing is usually removed and replaced with finish before matrix application. Also called size.
Sizing Content The percent of the totalstrand weight made up by the sizing, usuallydetermined by burning off the organic sizing(“loss on Ignition”).
Skein A continuous filament, strand, yarn,roving, etc., wound up to some measurablelength and generally used to measure variousphysical properties.
Skin The relatively dense laminate adhered to the outer surfaces of the core material in a sandwich structure.
Skin Coat The first layer of laminate next to the gel coat, generally, one ply of chopped strand mat پوشش پوسته،اولین لایه بعد از ژلکوت.
Slush molding Powdered or liquid thermoplastic material is poured into a mold to capacity; mold is closed and heated for a predetermined time in order to achieve a specified buildup of partially cured material on mold walls; mold is opened and unpolymerized material is poured out; and semifused part is removed from mold and fully polymerized in oven. Low mold costs and economical for small production runs.
SMC Sheet-moulding compound قالب گیری ورقه ای.
S-N Curve  Stress per number of cycles tofailure. Used to define fatigue behaviour.
Soft tool Tool made of composites or a similar “soft” material that is vulnerable to damage during use, storage or transportation. (In contrast to hard tool.)
Solution Any homogeneous liquid mixture of two or more chemical compounds orelements that will not undergo any segregation under conditions normal totransportation.
Solvent A liquid capable of dissolving another substance. Certain solvents find application as evaporative diluents in paints or coatings and/or as cleaning solutions in maintenance operations.
Spec Colloquial abbreviation for “specification”; describes the required properties and characteristics a particular material or part must have in order to be acceptable to a potential user.
Specific Gravity The ratio of the weight of any volume of a substance to theweight of an equal volume of some substance taken as a standard unit; usuallywater for solids and liquids, and air or hydrogen for gases. The ratio between the density of a given substance and the density of water.( mass per unit of volume) وزن مخصوص ،نسبت دانسیته یک ماده به دانسیته اب.
Specific Heat The quantity of heat requiredto raise the temperature of a unit mass of asubstance 1 degree under specified conditions.
Specimen An individual piece or portion ofa sample used to make a specific test. of specific shape and dimensions
Splice To join two ends of fibre yarn or strand,usually by means of an air-drying glue. Sucha join.
Split Mold An open mold made in two or more pieces. قالب باز که از چند تکه ساخته شده باشد.
Spray up  Techniques in which a spray gun is used as the processing tool. In reinforced plastics, for example, fibrous glass and resin can be simultaneously deposited in a mold. In essence, roving is fed through a chopper and ejected into a resin stream which is directed at the mold by either of two spray systems. In foamed plastics, very fast-reacting urethane foams or epoxy foams are fed in liquid streams to the gun and sprayed on the surface. On contact, the liquid starts to foam. A technique in which continuous strand roving is fed into a chopper gun, which chops the roving into predetermined lengths and sprays the chopped fiber, along with a measured amount of resin and catalyst, onto an open mold. The process of spraying glass fibers, resin and catalyst simultaneously into a mold using a chopper gun. پاشش الیاف ،فرایند پاشش الیاف ،رزین و کاتالیست بصورت همزمان از طریق پیستوله.
Sprayed-metal Moulds Moulds made byspraying molten metal onto a master until ashell of predetermined thickness is achieved.The shell is then removed and backed up withplaster, cement, casting resin, or other suitablematerial. Used primarily as a mould insheet-forming process.
Stabilizer An additive for polyesters to maintain liquid characteristics such as;gel time, viscosity and liquidity.
Stacking sequence Arrangement of ply orientations and material components in a laminate specified with respect to some reference direction (also see ply schedule).
Staple Collection of short filaments of spinnable length.
Staple Fiber A glass fiber of short length formed by blowing molten glassthrough holes.
Starved Joint An adhesive joint which hasbeen deprived of the proper film thickness ofadhesive due to insufficient adhesive spreadingor application of excessive pressure duringlamination. A joint that does not have the proper amount of adhesive becauseof insufficient spread or excessive pressure.
Stiffness The relationship of load and deformation;a term often used when the relationshipof stress to strain does not conform tothe definition of Young’s modulus. Measure of the resistance of a material to deformation. The ratio of applied stress to resulting strain for a particular material.( See Stressstrain.) سفتی ،صلبیت،توانائی یک ماده در مقابل خمش.رابطه بین باروتغییر مکان
Storage life The length of time a material can be stored and retain specific properties. and remain suitable foruse. (Also see shelf life.) زمان انبارداری ،
Strain As applied to composite laminates:The resultant change in dimension of a materialwhen subjected to a stress, expressed asa fraction or percentage of the original dimension. The elastic deformation of a material as a result of stress. Measured as the change in length per unit of length in a given direction; expressed as a percentage or in inches per inch. in physical sciences and engineering, number that describes relative deformation or change in shape and size of elastic, plastic, and fluid materials under applied forces کرنش ،تغییر شکل حاصل از تنش ،کشيدگى ،افزايش طول نسبى
Strands A primary bundle of continuous filaments combined in a single compactunit without twist. رشته های الیاف ،یک دسته الیاف پیوسته بدون بافت.دسته رشته ،
Stress The internal force that resists change in size or shape, expressed inforce per unit area. Most commonly defined as engineeringstress; the ratio of the applied load P tothe original cross-sectional area A. تنش
Stress Concentration Magnification of thelevel of an applied stress in the region of anotch, void, or inclusion.
Stress Corrosion Preferential attack of areasunder stress in a corrosive environment,where this factor alone would not have causedcorrosion.
Stress Crack External or internal cracks in aplastic caused by tensile stresses less thanthat of its basic mechanical strength. Thestresses which cause cracking may be presentinternally or externally or may be combinationsof these stresses. ترک تنشی ،ترکهای خارجی یا داخلی موجود در یک قطعه کامپوزیت ناشی از تنشهای کششی.
Stress Relaxation The decrease in stressunder sustained constant strain, also calledstress decay.
Stress strain Curve Simultaneous readingsof load and deformation, converted into stressand strain, plotted as y and x-axes, respectively,to obtain a stress-strain diagram.
Stringer A material, usually wood that runs lengthwise on a surfboard orsailboard blank, primarily to maintain a pre calculated rocker prior to shaping.
Structural adhesive An adhesive used to transfer loads between adhesively bonded surfaces.
Structural Bond A bond that joins basicload-bearing parts of an assembly; the loadmay be either static or dynamic.
Structural Reaction Injection Molding (SRIM) A closed molding process employing a fiber reinforced preform or mat that is injected with a reactive resin to impregnate the fibers and cure quickly.
Structural repair manual (SRM) Document prepared by an OEM that designates original structural materials (both composite and metal) used for a specific aircraft. It usually includes schematics for all parts and listings of fastener types and adhesives. It also suggests general repair methodologies and curing parameters (e..g., autoclave requirements) that will maintain structural integrity. Updated periodically by OEMs based on input from repair technicians.
Styrene Monomer A water-thin, liquid used to thin polyester resins prior to cureand which serves as the chemical which links the polyester chains together to form a dense solid during the curing process. An unsaturated hydrocarbon, used in plastics. In polyester, it is a co-reactant diluent. A component of polyester resin that provides crosslinking sites and reduces the polyester to a workable viscosity مونومر استایرن ،عامل بوجود اورنده اتصالات متقاطع در رزین پلیستر.
Substrate Material that provides the surface on which an adhesive-containing substance is applied for any purpose, such as bonding or coating. Any material which provides a supporting surface for other materials.
Surface Treatment A treatment applied tocarbon fibre during its manufacture to alter thefibre’s surface chemistry.
Surfacing Agent Solution added to polyester resin or used in association with itto prevent air from reaching the surface of polyester resin so the resin can cure.
Surfacing Mat A very thin mat .A tissue of staple fibers well bonded with a medium which “wetsout”rapidly in polyester and other contact resins. It is principally used to provideresin rich surfaces on RP moldings. A lightweight tissue (10-30 mils thick) of glass or synthetic fiber used to provide a resin-rich or smooth surface. See VEIL پارچه سطحی ،بافته نازک از الیاف که برای ایجاد سطح غنی از رزین بکار میرود.
Surfacing veil A reinforcing fabric specifically designed to block out the fiber patterns of underlying reinforcements. It often adds ultraviolet protection to the structure as well. (Also see veil.) حصیری سطحی ، پوشش سطحی برای هموار نمودن طرحهای الیاف دیگر و ارتقاء کیفی پرداخت سطحی که معمولا بهمراه الیاف دیگر استفاده میشود.
Surfactant Chemicals used to modify or change the surface of a layer of resin or polymer. Usually used to form a film on a curing resin, producing a tack-free surface عامل بهسازی سطحی ،مواد شیمیائی برای بهینه کردن سطح رزین که معمولا به شکل فیلم بر روی سطح رزین عمل اوری شده باقی میماند و یک سطح غیر چسبنده بوجود میاورد.
Surform A hand plane that uses cheese grater like blades useful for formingfoam. Also referred to as a “cheese grater”.
Symmetric laminate Laminate in which the stacking sequence for the plies located on one side of the geometric midplane are the mirror image of the stacking sequence on the other side of the midplane.
Syntactic Foam Resin which has been made lower in density, weight, viscousity,and generally “stretched out” by the addition of fillers-usually microspheres. A foam made by mixing microspheres with a resin. A cellular plastic which isput together by incorporating hollow spheresor microballoons in a resin matrix; opposite offoamed plastic, in which the cells are formedby gas bubbles released in the liquid plasticby chemical or mechanical action. فوم مصنوعی ،فومی که از اختلاط میگرو گلوله ها ی توخالی با رزین ایجاد میشود.
Synthetic fiber Fiber made of materials other than glass or carbon, such as polyester.
Tack Stickiness of an adhesive, resin orprepreg material. Stickiness of an uncured prepreg. چسبندگی سطحی ،
Tack Free A surface which is not sticky after cure غیر چسبنده ،سطحی که پس از عمل اوری چسبنده نباشد.
Tape A form of unidirectional prepreg consistingof continuous fibres that are alignedalong the tape axis parallel to each other andheld together purely by the impregnating resin. A narrow width reinforcing fabric or mat. Thin, unidirectional prepreg, available in up to 12-inch widths in carbon fiber. (Also see unidirectional. نوار ، پارچه تقویت کننده با پهنای کم .
Tape Laying A fabrication process in whichprepreg tape is laid side by side or overlappedto form a structure. The process can be automatedwith robotic arms.
Tenacity The term generally used in yarn manufacture and textile engineering to denote the strength of a yarn or of a filament of a given size. Numerically it is the grams of breaking force per denier unit of yarn or filament size; grams per denier, gpd. The yarn is usually pulled at the rate of 12 inches per minute. Tenacity equals breaking strength (grams) divided by denier.
Tensile Elongation An engineering term referring to the amount of stretch a sample experiences during tensile strain. ASTM D-638 ازدیاد طول کششی ،مقدار کش امدن یک نمونه ازمایشی در حین کرنش کششی .
Tensile Load A load applied away from and to opposite ends of a given sample بار کششی .باری که در دو انتهای یک نمونه در جهات مخالف اعمال میشود.
Tensile Modulus Measure of the ability of a material to withstand load withoutpermanent deformation. It is normally measured as the slope of the straight line portion of a plot of stress vs. strain. It is measured in millions of pounds per square inch. The ratio of the tensionstress to the strain in the material over therange for which this value is constant.
Tensile Strength or Stress The maximumtensile load per unit area of original cross section,sustained by the specimen during a tensiontest. Tensile strength is interpreted tomean the maximum tensile load sustained bythe specimen during the test, whether thiscoincides with the tensile load at the momentof rupture or not. استحکام کششی ،اندازه ای از بار کششی که یک نمونه میتواند تحمل کند.
Tex A measure of the mass of 10001m of afibre, tow or strand expressed in grammes.Sometimes expressed as dtex (decitex) where1dtex equals 0.1x tex and is equivalent to themass in grammes of 10,000lm of fibre, tow orstrand. TEX is a metric term used to class glass, it refers to grams per 1000m of material.
Tg See glass-transition temperature.
Thermal Coefficient of Expansion Measures how much the length of a materialwill change when the material is heated or cooled. The value given is based on theinch as a unit. The number given shows how much this material is raised onedegree Fahrenheit (in.in.°F.). Higher numbers mean that the material will expand or lengthen more for each degree rise in temperature. Smaller numbers indicate relative stability to change no matter what temperature. Measured in inches per inch per degree ضریب انبساط حرارتی ،تغییر ابعاد یک ماده وقتی گرم یاسرد شود.
Thermal Conductivity Ability of a materialto conduct heat; the physical constant forquantity of heat that passes through a unitcube of a substance in unit time when thedifference in temperature of two faces is1 degree. Measures the transfer of heat through a material هدایت گرمائی ،میزان انتقال حرارت از درون یک ماده.
Thermal stress cracking Crazing and cracking of some thermoplastic resins from overexposure to elevated temperatures.
Thermocouple Wire assembly used with a control device to sense temperature ترموکوپل.سنسورحرارتی. وسيله‌ اندازه‌ گيري‌ اختلاف‌ درجه‌ حرارت‌
Thermoplastic A plastic material that is capable of being repeatedly softened byapplication of heat and repeatedly hardened by cooling. Members of thethermoplastic family are the styrene polymers and copolymers, acrylics, cellulose,polyethylenes, vinyls and the various fluorocarbon materials. Heat-softened thermoplastic sheet is positioned over male or female mold; air is evacuated from between sheet and mold, forcing sheet to conform to contour of mold. Variations are vacuum snapback, plug assist, drape forming, etc. Tooling costs are generally low, large part production with thin sections possible, and often comes out economical for limited part production. A group of plastic materials that become elastic or melt when heated, and return to their rigid state at room temperature. Examples are PVC, ABS, polystrene, polycarbonates, nylon, etc ترموپلاستیک ،انواعی از پلاستیکها که با حرارت ذوب شده یا به حالت الاستیک در میایند .گرمانرم ها.
Thermoset A plastic material which changesinto a substantially infusible and unmouldablematerial after it is cured by application of heator by chemical means. Although a thermosetmaterial will soften at its Tg, it will never returnto its precured liquid state Typical thermosets are polyesters, acrylics, epoxies, and phenolics ترموست ، گرماسخت ،
Thickener Material added to resin to thicken or increase the viscosity of theresin so it will not flow as readily. A common thickener used with polyester and epoxy resins is fumed silica, which helps make the resin thixotropic.
Thinner Material added to resin in order to thin or lower the viscosity of theresin. There is a limit to the amount of thinner that can be added withoutaffecting the desirable qualities of the resin. It is generally better to choose an alternative resin.
Thixotropic Describes substances that have high static shear strength and low dynamic shear strength, which results in a predictable, time-dependent loss of viscosity under shear (e.g., when mixed, sprayed or otherwise subjected to force) and subsequent substantial to complete return to the higher at-rest viscosity when shear force is removed. Highly thixotropic resins, for example, may be applied easily with spray equipment, yet immediately afterward resist running on a vertical surface. . A term describing the rehology (or characteristics) of a liquid that resists flowing or drainage during application. تیکسوتروپیک ،اصطلاح بیانگر مشخصه های مقاومت  یک مایع درقبال جاری شدن یا شره کردن.
Thixotropic Index (T.I.) A measure of thixotropy using a Brookfield Viscometer. The low speed viscosity divided by the high speed viscosity. اندیس تیکسوتروپیک ،ضریب تیکسوتروپی که با ویسکومتر اندازه گیری میشود.
Thread Count The number of yarns (threads)per inch (millimetre) in either lengthwise (warp)or crosswise (weft) direction of woven fabrics.
Tint A transparent coloring agent for resin
Tool The mold, either one- or two-sided and either open or closed, in or upon which composite material is placed in order to make a part.
Tooling Gel Coat A gel coat formulated for mold surfaces ژل کوت قالبسازی ،
Tooling Resins Resins, chiefly epoxy and silicone, that are used as tooling aids.
Top Coat  FRP welds are finished with an external corrosion barrier. One part of theexternal corrosion barrier is the “top coat”, sometimes referred to as a “gelcoat”. The topcoat is an epoxy paint that contains a wax solution and UV absorbers. It is catalyzed with resin andbrushed onto the exterior surfaces of the weld to seal all exposed glass.
Torsional Rigidity (Fibres) The resistance of a fibre to twisting. استحکام در مقابل پيچش
Toughness Tendency of a material to absorb work. The resistance of a material to crack propagation. Measure of the ability of a material to absorb energy. چقرمگى
Tow large bundle of continuous filaments,generally 1000 or more, usually designated bya number followed by “K,” indicating multiplicationby 1000; for example, 12K tow has12,000 filaments. Normally applied to carbonfibre. فتیله ،
Tow size Designates the number of filaments in a tow, denoted by a number followed by K, indicating multiplication by 1,000 (for example, 12K tow has 12,000 filaments).
Towpreg A prepreg fabricated from tow which can be converted to woven and braided fabric. These fabric structures are more flexible than the prepreg tape and can be used for three-dimensional lay-ups. Rollers are usually used to filament wind with towpreg to prevent damage to the material.
Tracer A visually different or distinctive fiber, tow, or yarn added to a prepreg to verify fiber alignment or to distinguish warp fibers frfill fibers.
Transfer molding Related to compression and injection molding processes. Thermoset molding compound is fed from hopper into a transfer chamber where it is then heated to plasticity; it is then fed by a plunger through sprues, runners, and gates into a closed mold where it cures; mold is opened and part ejected. Good dimensional accuracy, rapid production rate, and very intricate parts can be produced.
Transition Temperature The temperature atwhich the properties of a material change.
Translucent Permits a percentage of light to pass but not optically clear like window glass شفافیت .نیمه شفاف .مات
Triaxial fabric Fabric with three non-interwoven layers – oriented at +45°, – 45° and either 0° or 90° – which are bonded together, usually by through-the-thickness stitching, to form a single sheet of fabric. (See also biaxial fabric, quadraxial fabric.)
Twist Measure of the number of turns per unit length that a fiber bundle makes around its axis. “Z”-twist denotes a right-handed twist, while “S”-twist denotes a left-handed twist. “U” is often used to represent no twist and “N” means never twisted. The turns about its axis per unit oflength in a yarn or other textile strand.
UHM Ultra-high modulus
Ultimate Elongation The elongation atrupture of a material. Also called ‘Elongationat break’ or ‘Strain to failure’.
Ultimate Tensile Strength The ultimate orfinal stress sustained by a specimen in atension test; at moment of rupture.
Ultrahigh molecular weight (UHMW) polyethylene A polyethylene (PE) resin with very high molecular weight and very high abrasion resistance and impact strength
Ultraviolet Zone of invisible radiations beyondthe violet end of the spectrum of visibleradiations. Since ultraviolet wave lengths areshorter than the visible, their photons havemore energy, enough to initiate some chemicalreactions and to degrade most plastics.
Ultraviolet (UV) cure The process of curing resins and adhesives with ultraviolet light.
Undercut An area of a part or mold that No changes. has an acute angle between two surfaces. If a part has an undercut a split mold is necessary .Negative or reverse draft on the mold. Split molds are necessary tolaminate (fabricate) parts with undercuts. منطقه ای از قالب که بین دو سطح دارای زاویه حاده باشد وبنابراین نیاز به یک قالب چند تکه دارد.
Unidirectional (UD) Refers to fibers that are oriented in the same direction, such asunidirectional fabric or tape. Strength lying mainly in one direction. A glass reinforcement in which the fiber is oriented in one direction. such asunidirectional fabric, tape, or laminate, oftencalled UD. یک جهته ،الیاف تقویت کننده ای که در یک جهت موقعیت دهی شده باشند و در یک جهت استحکام داشته باشند.تک سو،
Unidirectional Laminate A reinforcedplastic laminate in which substantially all thefibres are oriented in the same direction.
UV Stabilizer A chemical compound which improves resistance to degradation from ultraviolet radiation یک ترکیب شیمیائی که مقاومت در مقابل تخریبهای اشعه ماوراء بنفش را بهبود میدهد.
Vacuum Bag Molding A molding technique, that applies uniform pressure to alaminate by enclosure in a layer film from which air is removed by vacuum. Process for eliminating voids and forcing out entrapped air and excess resin from lay ups by drawing a vacuum from a plastic film which blankets a laminate, A process formoulding laminates in which a sheet of flexiblematerial is placed over the lay-up on themould and sealed. A vacuum is applied betweenthe sheet and the lay-up. The entrappedair is pulled out of the lay-up and removed bythe vacuum. Atmospheric pressure provides the consolidation pressure.
Vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) An infusion process by which a vacuum draws resin into a one-sided mold; a cover, either rigid or flexible, is placed over the laminate and taped or otherwise fixed to form a vacuum-tight seal. (See previous entry.)
Vapor Pressure A measure of how readily a liquid or a solid mixes with air. Ahigher. vapor pressure indicates a higher concentration of the substance in air and therefore increases the likelihood of inhaling it.
Veil An ultrathin, nonwoven mat often composed of organic fibers as well as glass fibers and used primarily as a corrosion barrier. An ultrathin mat similar to a surface mat,often composed of organic fibres as well asglass fibres.
Vinyl Ester Resin A type of polyester resin with improved physical properties,especially at elevated temperatures, over either Ortho or Iso polyesters. A class of thermosetting resins containing ester of acrylic and/or methacrylic acids.
Viscosity The property of resistance to flowexhibited within the body of a liquid orsemi-solid expressed in terms of relationshipbetween applied shearing stress andresulting rate of strain in shear. measure of the internal resistance to flow of a fluid. Thickness of aliquid. The liquid properties of a material. . Viscosity is measured in comparison with water, and computed in centipoise (cps). The higher the number, the greater the resistance to flow. گرانروی ، ویسکوزیته ،سیالیت یک ماده ،مقاومت به جاری شدن که نسبت به اب سنجیده میشود.
Void Content The percentage of voids in alaminate. در صد حبابها در داخل لایه ها
Void Free A molding containing no entrapped air cavities, blisters, or voids. لایه گذاری فاقد حباب یا حفره های هوا.
Voids Gaseous pockets trapped and curedinto a laminate usually within the matrix. Pockets of entrapped gas that have been cured into a laminate. حفره های هوائی که در لایه گذاری محبوس شده اند .
Volatile content The percent of volatiles that are driven off as a vapor from a plastic or an impregnated reinforcement during cure.
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) Chemical substances, such as solvents, that readily evaporate or volatilize into the air. Many VOCs also are considered hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) because of potential health concerns. ترکیبات الی فرارشامل کربن که در دمای محیط تبخیر میشوند مانند حلالها.
Volatiles Materials, such as water and alcohol, in a sizing or resin formulation that can be vaporized at ambient or slightly elevated temperatures.
Warp (1) The yarn running lengthwise in awoven fabric; a group of yarns in long lengthsand approximately parallel, put on beams orwarp reels for further textile processing,including weaving. (2) A change indimensions of a cured laminate from itsoriginal moulded shape. تار (در مقابل پود).
Warpage Dimensional distortion in a composite.
Water Absorption The gain in weight due to the take up of water by immersion. The amount of water which a laminate will abso Ratio of the weight ofwater absorbed by a material upon immersionto the weight of the dry material.rb. جذب اب جذب شده توسط لایه ها.
Water Jet A high pressure stream of waterused for cutting composites and othermaterials. واترجت ،ابزاری برای برش کامپوزیتها و سایر مواد با استفاده از فشار بالای اب.
WAX A compound used as a release agent. See RELEASE AGENT. واکس ،نوعی عامل جدا سازی
Weathering The exposure of materialsoutdoors. In artificial weathering, plasticsare exposed to cyclic laboratory conditions ofhigh and low temperatures, high and lowrelative humidities, and ultraviolet radiantenergy, with or without direct water spray, inan attempt to produce changes in their properties similar to those observed on longcontinuous exposure outdoors. Laboratoryexposure conditions are usually intensifiedbeyond those in actual outdoor exposure toachieve an accelerated effect.
Weave To interlace fibers in a pattern, often based on a 0°/90° grid; the fabric pattern formed by interlacing yarns. Interlacing patterns vary. In plain weave, for instance, warp and fill fibers alternate to make both fabric faces identical. A satin weave pattern is produced by a warp tow over several fill tows and under one fill tow (e.g., eight-harness satin features one warp tow over seven fill tows and under the eighth). بافت ، طرحی از الیاف بافته شده که روی  پارچه تشکیل میشود.
Web A textile fabric, paper or a thin metalsheet of continuous length handled in rollform, as contrasted with the same material cutinto sheets.
Weft The yarns running perpendicular to the warp in a woven fabric; also calledfill or “woof”‘ .The transverse threads of fibres in awoven fabric running perpendicular to thewarp پود ، الیاف عمود بر تار
Wet Flexural Strength(WFS) The flexural strength after water immersion; usually after boiling the test specimen for two hours in water
Wet layup Application of a resin to dry reinforcements in the mold. A process in which liquid resinis applied as the reinforcement is laid up.
Wet layup or contact molding Several layers, consisting of a mixture of reinforcement (generally glass cloth) and thermosetting resin are positioned in mold and roller contoured to mold’s shape; assembly is usually oven-cured without the application of pressure. In spray molding, a modification, resin systems and chopped fiber are sprayed simultaneously from a spray gun against the mold surface. Wet-layup parts are sometimes cured under pressure, using vacuum bag, pressure bag, or autoclave, and depending on the method employed, wet-layup can be called open molding, hand layup, sprayup, vacuum bag, pressure bag, or autoclave molding. Little equipment required, efficient, low cost, and suitable for low-volume production of parts.
Wet Winding In filament winding the processof winding glass on a mandrel where thestrand is impregnated with resin just beforecontact with the mandrel. A filament winding technique that impregnates fiber strands with resin immediately before they contact the mandrel. پیچش تر،رشته پیچی تر.
Wetout Saturation with resin of all voids between reinforcement strands and filaments. The condition of an impregnatedroving or yarn wherein substantially all voidsbetween the sized strands and filaments arefilled with resin.
Wetout Rate The speed with which a reinforcing material can be completelysaturated with resin. This rate is usually determined visually and measured in elapsed time; usually determined by optical or lighttransmissionmeans..
Wetting Agent A surface-active agent usuallyin a resin formulation that promotes wettingby decreasing the cohesion within a liquid. عامل اغشته سازی ،این عامل با کاهش چسبندگی سطح ،سرعت اغشته شدن را افزایش میدهد.
Wetting Out The action of saturating a glass fabric with resin. Also a measure of the speed with which a fabric soaks up resin عمل اغشته سازی ، اشباع کردن یک پارچه با رزین ،سرعت اغشته شدن الیاف با رزین.
Whisker A very short fibre form of reinforcement,usually crystalline. ویسکر ،الیاف کوتاه تک کریستالی ،نوعی تقویت کننده
Wicking The travel of moisture or water through fibers in a laminate not totallysaturated or encapsulated with resin.
Wind angle Measure in degrees between the direction parallel to the filaments and an established reference point.
Winding Any process in which continuous material is applied under controlled tension to a rotating form (mandrel) in a predetermined geometric relationship to make a structure. (See filament winding.)
Winding Pattern : In filament winding: (1)The total number of individual circuits requiredfor a winding path to begin repeating by layingdown immediately adjacent to the initialcircuit. (2) A regularly recurring pattern of thefilament path after a certain number of mandrelrevolutions, leading to the eventual complete coverage of the mandrel
Winding Tension In filament winding theamount of tension on the reinforcement as itmakes contact with the mandrel.
Wire Large diameter (greater than about 2 mils) high-performance fiber (e.g., see boron fiber or silicon carbide fiber). In contrast, see filament and fiber.
Wire mesh Fine wire screen used to dissipate the electrical charge from lighting.
Woven Cloth  A woven continuous filament cloth used where very high strength isimportant.
Woven Fabrics Fabrics produced by interlacingstrands at more or less right angles. پارچه بافته .
Woven Roving A heavy glass-fibre fabricmade by weaving glass roving. They drape well, are quickly impregnated, andintermediate in price between mats and knitted fabric reinforcements. Usually in weights between 18-30 oz. per square yard پارچه های سنگین بافته شده از الیاف پیوسته.
Woven Tape Tapes of various thickness woven from continuous filament yarns.
Wrinkle Imperfection in the surface of a laminate that looks like a crease in one of the outer layers. This occurs in vacuum-bag molding when the bag is improperly placed.
X-axis Usually, the axis in the plane of the laminate used as 0° reference. Typically, the y-axis is the axis in the plane of the laminate perpendicular to the x-axis, and the z-axis is the reference axis normal to the laminate plane in the composite laminate. (See also laminate coordinate axes, off-axis laminate and principal axis.)
Yarn An assembly of twisted fibres or strands,natural or manufactured, to form a continuousyarn suitable for use in weaving or otherwiseinterweaving into textile materials. . A twisted strand or strands of glass fibers which can be woven, braided,served and processed on conventional textile equipment.
Y-axis The axis in the plane of a laminate perpendicular to the x-axis.
Yield Yield is a english term used to class glass, it refers to nominal yards of material per pound .
Yield Point The first stress in a material, lessthan the maximum attainable stress, at whichan increase in strain occurs without an increasein stress. Only materials that exhibitthis unique phenomenon of yielding have ayield point. The point at which permanent deformation of a stressed specimen begins to take place. (Also see stress and strain.)
Yield Strength The stress at which a materialexhibits a specified limiting deviation fromthe proportionality of stress to strain; the loweststress at which a material undergoes plasticdeformation. Below this stress, the materialis elastic; above it, plastic.
Young’s modulus Ratio of normal stress to the corresponding strain for tensile or compressive stresses less than a material’s proportional limit. See Modulus of elasticity
Z-axis The axis perpendicular to the plane formed by the x and y axes. In a sheet laminate, if the x and y axes are parallel to the length and width, respectively, the z-axis would indicate sheet thickness. (See x-axis and y-axis.)
Zero bleed Laminate fabrication procedure that does not allow loss of resin during cure.
Zero-degree winds These are specialty winds for generating zero-angle winds which run the length of cylinders (generally combined with the use of specialized mandrels to catch the fiber at the ends of the part and prevent slippage).